Tuesday, January 6, 2009

BioPost No. 5

Make an outline of the major differences of the Five Kingdoms of Living Organisms. Cite 5 example organisms for each kingdom. (10 points for each well characterized kingdom; total: 50 points)

27 comments:

erica said...

---kingdom animalia---
***Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms for sustenance.

Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago.The word "animal" comes from the Latin word animale, neuter of animalis, and is derived from anima, meaning vital breath or soul. In everyday colloquial usage, the word usually refers to non-human animals. The biological definition of the word refers to all members of the Kingdom Animalia, including humans.
Animals have several characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular (although see Myxozoa), which separates them from bacteria and most protists. They are heterotrophic generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae (some sponges are capable of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation though. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at certain life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.

With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera) and Placozoa, animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. These include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissue, which sends and processes signals. There is also typically an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings. Animals with this sort of organization are called metazoans, or eumetazoans when the former is used for animals in general.

All animals have eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and spicules. During development it forms a relatively flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other multicellular organisms like plants and fungi have cells held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive growth. Also, unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.

The sponges (Porifera) were long thought to have diverged from other animals early. As mentioned above, they lack the complex organization found in most other phyla. Their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organized into distinct tissues. Sponges are sessile and typically feed by drawing in water through pores. Archaeocyatha, which have fused skeletons, may represent sponges or a separate phylum. However, a phylogenomic study in 2008 of 150 genes in 21 genera revealed that it is the Ctenophora or comb jellies which are the basal lineage of animals, at least among those 21 phyla. The authors speculate that sponges—or at least those lines of sponges they investigated—are not so primitive, but may instead be secondarily simplified.

Among the other phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish, are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus. Both have distinct tissues, but they are not organized into organs. There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, these animals are sometimes called diploblastic. The tiny Placozoans are similar, but they do not have a permanent digestive chamber.

The remaining animals form a monophyletic group called the Bilateria. For the most part, they are bilaterally symmetric, and often have a specialized head with feeding and sensory organs. The body is triploblastic, i.e. all three germ layers are well-developed, and tissues form distinct organs. The digestive chamber has two openings, a mouth and an anus, and there is also an internal body cavity called a coelom or pseudocoelom. There are exceptions to each of these characteristics, however - for instance adult echinoderms are radially symmetric, and certain parasitic worms have extremely simplified body structures.

Genetic studies have considerably changed our understanding of the relationships within the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to two major lineages: the Deuterostomes and Protostomes, which includes the Ecdysozoa, Platyzoa, and Lophotrochozoa. In addition, there are a few small groups of bilaterians with relatively similar structure that appear to have diverged before these major groups. These include the Acoelomorpha, Rhombozoa, and Orthonectida. The Myxozoa, single-celled parasites that were originally considered Protozoa, are now believed to have developed from the Bilateria as well.
Superb Fairy-wren, Malurus cyaneusDeuterostomes differ from the other Bilateria, called protostomes, in several ways. In both cases there is a complete digestive tract. However, in protostomes the initial opening (the archenteron) develops into the mouth, and an anus forms separately. In deuterostomes this is reversed. In most protostomes, cells simply fill in the interior of the gastrula to form the mesoderm, called schizocoelous development, but in deuterostomes it forms through invagination of the endoderm, called enterocoelic pouching. Deuterostomes also have a dorsal, rather than a ventral, nerve chord and their embryos undergo different cleavage.

All this suggests the deuterostomes and protostomes are separate, monophyletic lineages. The main phyla of deuterostomes are the Echinodermata and Chordata. The former are radially symmetric and exclusively marine, such as starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. The latter are dominated by the vertebrates, animals with backbones. These include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

In addition to these, the deuterostomes also include the Hemichordata or acorn worms. Although they are not especially prominent today, the important fossil graptolites may belong to this group.

The Chaetognatha or arrow worms may also be deuterostomes, but more recent studies suggest protostome affinities.
The Ecdysozoa are protostomes, named after the common trait of growth by moulting or ecdysis. The largest animal phylum belongs here, the Arthropoda, including insects, spiders, crabs, and their kin. All these organisms have a body divided into repeating segments, typically with paired appendages. Two smaller phyla, the Onychophora and Tardigrada, are close relatives of the arthropods and share these traits.

The ecdysozoans also include the Nematoda or roundworms, the second largest animal phylum. Roundworms are typically microscopic, and occur in nearly every environment where there is water. A number are important parasites. Smaller phyla related to them are the Nematomorpha or horsehair worms, and the Kinorhyncha, Priapulida, and Loricifera. These groups have a reduced coelom, called a pseudocoelom.

The remaining two groups of protostomes are sometimes grouped together as the Spiralia, since in both embryos develop with spiral cleavage.
The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes, the flatworms. These were originally considered some of the most primitive Bilateria, but it now appears they developed from more complex ancestors.
A number of parasites are included in this group, such as the flukes and tapeworms. Flatworms are acoelomates, lacking a body cavity, as are their closest relatives, the microscopic Gastrotricha.

The other platyzoan phyla are mostly microscopic and pseudocoelomate. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida, Micrognathozoa, and possibly the Cycliophora. These groups share the presence of complex jaws, from which they are called the Gnathifera.
The Lophotrochozoa include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida. The former, which is the second-largest animal phylum, includes animals such as snails, clams, and squids, and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as earthworms and leeches. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods, because they are both segmented. Now this is generally considered convergent evolution, owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.

The Lophotrochozoa also include the Nemertea or ribbon worms, the Sipuncula, and several phyla that have a fan of cilia around the mouth, called a lophophore. These were traditionally grouped together as the lophophorates. but it now appears they are paraphyletic, some closer to the Nemertea and some to the Mollusca and Annelida. They include the Brachiopoda or lamp shells, which are prominent in the fossil record, the Entoprocta, the Phoronida, and possibly the Bryozoa or moss animals.
---kingdom plantae---
**** Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below). Green plants, sometimes called metaphytes or viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.
Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular.

When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:

Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. As the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below.
Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta - comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article.
Archaeplastida - also known as Plantae sensu lato, Plastida or Primoplantae - comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria.
Informally, other creatures that carry out photosynthesis are called plants as well, but they do not constitute a formal taxon and represent species that are not closely related to true plants. There are around 375,000 species of plants, and each year more are found and described by science.


Algae
Main article: Algae
Most algae are no longer classified within the Kingdom Plantae.[2][3] The algae comprise several different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis, each of which arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors. Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green, red, and brown algae. Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms.

The two groups of green algae are the closest relatives of land plants (embryophytes). The first of these groups is the Charophyta (desmids and stoneworts), from which the embryophytes developed. The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae,Chlorophyta, and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyletic grouping. With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose, have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae.

The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of two additional groups of algae: the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta. All three groups together are generally believed to have a common origin, and so are classified together in the taxon Archaeplastida. In contrast, most other algae (e.g. heterokonts, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.


---kingdom fungi---
*****Fungi were previously included in the plant kingdom, but are now seen to be more closely related to animals. Unlike embryophytes and algae which are generally photosynthetic, fungi are often saprotrophs: obtaining food by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials. Most fungi are formed by microscopic structures called hyphae, which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei. Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are most familiar, are the reproductive structures of fungi. They are not related to any of the photosynthetic groups, but are close relatives of animals. Therefore, the fungi are in a kingdom of their own.
Plant fossils include roots, wood, leaves, seeds, fruit, pollen, spores, phytoliths, and amber (the fossilized resin produced by some plants). Fossil land plants are recorded in terrestrial, lacustrine, fluvial and nearshore marine sediments. Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil plants are not as common as fossil animals, although plant fossils are locally abundant in many regions worldwide.

The earliest fossils clearly assignable to Kingdom Plantae are fossil green algae from the Cambrian. These fossils resemble calcified multicellular members of the Dasycladales. Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.

The oldest known fossils of embryophytes date from the Ordovician, though such fossils are fragmentary. By the Silurian, fossils of whole plants are preserved, including the lycophyte Baragwanathia longifolia. From the Devonian, detailed fossils of rhyniophytes have been found. Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue. The Devonian period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris. This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with the fronds of a fern, but produced no seeds.

The Coal Measures are a major source of Palaeozoic plant fossils, with many groups of plants in existence at this time. The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal. In the Fossil Forest at Victoria Park in Glasgow, Scotland, the stumps of Lepidodendron trees are found in their original growth positions.

The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Caenozoic eras. Sequoia and its allies, magnolia, oak, and palms are often found.

Petrified wood is common in some parts of the world, and is most frequently found in arid or desert areas where it is more readily exposed by erosion. Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide), and the impregnated tissue is often preserved in fine detail. Such specimens may be cut and polished using lapidary equipment. Fossil forests of petrified wood have been found in all continents.

Fossils of seed ferns such as Glossopteris are widely distributed throughout several continents of the southern hemisphere, a fact that gave support to Alfred Wegener's early ideas regarding Continental drift theory.
The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany. They are often used as synonyms but some consider economic botany to focus mainly on uses of modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany studies uses of indigenous plants by native peoples. Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.
---kingdom protista---
****Protists (IPA: /ˈproʊtɨst/), are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is no longer recognized in modern taxonomy. The protists do not have much in common besides a relatively simple organization -- either they are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues. This simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi, animals and plants.

The term protista was first used by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Protists were traditionally subdivided into several groups based on similarities to the "higher" kingdoms: the one-celled animal-like protozoa, the plant-like protophyta (mostly one-celled algae), and the fungus-like slime molds and water molds. Because these groups often overlap, they have been replaced by phylogenetic-based classifications. However, they are still useful as informal names for describing the morphology and ecology of protists.

Protists live in almost any environment that contains liquid water. Many protists, such as the algae, are photosynthetic and are vital primary producers in ecosystems, particularly in the ocean as part of the plankton. Other protists, such as the Kinetoplastids and Apicomplexa are responsible for a range of serious human diseases, such as malaria and sleeping sickness.

Historical classifications
The first division of the protists from other organisms came in the 1820's, when the German biologist Georg A. Goldfuss introduced the word protozoa to refer to organisms such as ciliates and corals.This group was expanded in 1845 to include all "unicellular animals", such as Foraminifera and amoebae. The formal taxonomic category Protoctista was first proposed in the early 1860's John Hogg, who argued that the protists should include what he saw as primitive unicellular forms of both plants and animals. He defined the Protoctista as a "fourth kingdom of nature", in addition to the then-traditional kingdoms of plants, animals and minerals. The kingdom of minerals was later removed from taxonomy by Ernst Haeckel, leaving plants, animals, and the protists as a “kingdom of primitive forms”.

Herbert Copeland resurrected Hogg's label almost a century later, arguing that "Protoctista" literally meant "first established beings", Copeland complained that Haeckel's term protista included anucleated microbes such as bacteria. Copeland's use of the term protoctista did not. In contrast, Copeland's term included nucleated eukaryotes such as diatoms, green algae and fungi. This classification was the basis for Whittaker's later definition of Fungi, Animalia, Plantae and Protista as the four kingdoms of life.The kingdom Protista was later modified to separate prokaryotes into the separate kingdom of Monera, leaving the protists as a group of eukaryotic microorganisms. These five kingdoms remained the accepted classification until the development of molecular phylogenetics in the late 20th century, when it became apparent that neither protists or monera were single groups of related organisms (they were not monophyletic groups).
Modern classifications
Currently, the term protist is used to refer to unicellular eukaryotes that either exist as independent cells, or if they occur in colonies, do not show differentiation into tissues. The term protozoa is used to refer to heterotrophic species of protists that do not form filaments. These terms are not used in current taxonomy, and are retained only as convenient ways to refer to these organisms.

The taxonomy of protists is still changing. Newer classifications attempt to present monophyletic groups based on ultrastructure, biochemistry, and genetics. Because the protists as a whole are paraphyletic, such systems often split up or abandon the kingdom, instead treating the protist groups as separate lines of eukaryotes. The recent scheme by Adl et al. protist is an example that does not bother with formal ranks (phylum, class, etc.) and instead lists organisms in hierarchical lists. This is intended to make the classification more stable in the long term and easier to update.

Some of the main groups of protists, which may be treated as phyla, are listed in the taxobox at right. Many are thought to be monophyletic, though there is still uncertainty. For instance, the excavates are probably not monophyletic and the chromalveolates are probably only monophyletic if the haptophytes and cryptomonads are excluded.

Types of protists

Protozoa, the animal-like protists
Protozoa are mostly single-celled, motile protists that feed by phagocytosis, though there are numerous exceptions. They are usually only 0.01–0.5 mm in size, generally too small to be seen without magnification. Protozoa are grouped by method of locomotion into:

Flagellates with long flagella e.g., Euglena
Amoeboids with transient pseudopodia e.g., Amoeba
Ciliates with multiple, short cilia e.g., Paramecium
Sporozoa non-mobile parasites; some can form spores e.g., Toxoplasma
Algae, the plant-like protists
They include many single-celled organisms that are also considered protozoa, such as Euglena, which many believe have acquired chloroplasts through secondary endosymbiosis. Others are non-motile, and some (called seaweeds) are truly multicellular, including members of the following groups:

Chlorophytes green algae, are related to higher plants e.g., Ulva
Rhodophytes red algae e.g., Porphyra
Heterokontophytes brown algae, diatoms, etc. e.g., Macrocystis
The green and red algae, along with a small group called the glaucophytes, appear to be close relatives of other plants, and so some authors treat them as Plantae despite their simple organization. Most other types of algae, however, developed separately. They include the haptophytes, cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, euglenids, and chlorarachniophytes, all of which have also been considered protozoans.
Note some protozoa host endosymbiotic algae, as in Paramecium bursaria or radiolarians, that provide them with energy but are not integrated into the cell.
Fungus-like protists
Various organisms with a protist-level organization were originally treated as fungi, because they produce sporangia. These include chytrids, slime molds, water molds, and Labyrinthulomycetes. Of these, the chytrids are now known to be related to other fungi and are usually classified with them. The others are now placed among the heterokonts (which have cellulose rather than chitin walls) and the Amoebozoa (which do not have cell walls).
---fungi kingdom---
***** A fungus (pronounced /ˈfʌŋgəs/) is a eukaryotic organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (pronounced /ˈfʌndʒaɪ/).[2]. The fungi are a monophyletic group, also called the Eumycota ("true fungi" or eumycetes), that is phylogenetically distinct from the morphologically similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes). The fungi are heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall, with the majority of fungal species growing as multicellular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium; some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction of the fungi is commonly via spores, often produced on specialized structures or in fruiting bodies. Some species have lost the ability to form reproductive structures, and propagate solely by vegetative growth. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi. The fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, yet the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi, known as mycology, often falls under a branch of botany.

Occurring worldwide, most fungi are largely invisible to the naked eye, living for the most part in soil, dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They perform an essential role in all ecosystems in decomposing organic matter and are indispensable in nutrient cycling and exchange. Some fungi become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Many fungal species have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. More recently, fungi are being used as sources for antibiotics used in medicine and various enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases, important for industrial use or as active ingredients of detergents. Many fungi produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides that are toxic to animals including humans. Some fungi are used recreationally or in traditional ceremonies as a source of psychotropic compounds. Several species of the fungi are significant pathogens of humans and other animals, and losses due to diseases of crops (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage caused by fungi can have a large impact on human food supply and local economies.
The fungi have a range of features defining the fungal kingdom, some of which are shared with other organisms while others are unique to the fungi.[4]

Shared features:

With eukaryotes: All fungi are eukaryotic, containing membrane-bound nuclei with chromosomes. Fungal cells contain membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles, DNA with noncoding regions called introns, sterol-containing membranes, and ribosomes of the 80S type. Fungi have a characteristic range of soluble carbohydrates and storage compounds, including mannitol and other sugar alcohols, trehalose and glycogen the latter of which is also found in animals.
With animals: Fungi lack chloroplasts and are heterotrophic organisms, requiring preformed organic compounds as energy sources and also as carbon skeletons for organic synthesis.
With plants: Fungi possess a cell wall. They reproduce by both sexual and asexual means, and like some basal plant groups, such as ferns and mosses produce spores. Similar to mosses and algae, fungi typically have haploid nuclei.
With prokaryotes: As in some bacteria, biosynthesis of the amino acid, L-lysine, is via the α-aminoadipate pathway.
Features unique to the Fungi:

Fungi typically grow as hyphae, which extend at their tips. This apical growth form is in contrast with other filamentous organisms, like filamentous green algae, which grow by repeated cell divisions within a chain of cells (intercalary growth).
Some fungi grow as single-celled yeasts which reproduce by budding, and some dimorphic fungi can switch between a yeast phase and a hyphal phase in response to environmental conditions.
The fungal cell wall contains glucans also found in plants, but also chitin not found in the Plant kingdom, but in some animals. In contrast to plants, fungal cell walls do not contain cellulose.
Fungal hyphae may have several nuclei within each hyphal compartment, and many budding yeasts are diploid.

Diversity
Fungi have a worldwide distribution, and grow in a wide range of habitats, including deserts, hypersaline environments, the deep sea, on rocks, and in extremely low and high temperatures. They have been shown to be able to survive the intense UV and cosmic radiation encountered during space travel.

Most fungi grow in terrestrial environments, but several species occur only in aquatic habitats. Fungi along with bacteria are the primary decomposers of organic matter in most if not all terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Based on observations of the ratio of the number of fungal species to the number of plant species in some environments, the fungal kingdom has been estimated to contain about 1.5 million species. Around 70,000 fungal species have been formally described by taxonomists, but the true dimension of fungal diversity is still unknown. Most fungi grow as thread-like filaments called hyphae, which form a mycelium, while others grow as single cells. Until recently many fungal species were described based mainly on morphological characteristics, such as the size and shape of spores or fruiting structures, and biological species concepts; the application of molecular tools, such as DNA sequencing, to study fungal diversity has greatly enhanced the resolution and added robustness to estimates of diversity within various taxonomic groups.
Some of the best known types of fungi are the edible and the poisonous mushrooms. Many species are commercially raised, but others must be harvested from the wild. Agaricus bisporus, sold as button mushrooms when small or Portobello mushrooms when larger, are the most commonly eaten species, used in salads, soups, and many other dishes. Many Asian fungi are commercially grown and have gained in popularity in the West. They are often available fresh in grocery stores and markets, including straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitakes (Lentinula edodes), and enokitake (Flammulina spp.).

There are many more mushroom species that are harvested from the wild for personal consumption or commercial sale. Milk mushrooms, morels, chanterelles, truffles, black trumpets, and porcini mushrooms (Boletus edulis) (also known as king boletes) all demand a high price on the market. They are often used in gourmet dishes.

For certain types of cheeses, it is also a common practice to inoculate milk curds with fungal spores to foment the growth of specific species of mold that impart a unique flavor and texture to the cheese. This accounts for the blue colour in cheeses such as Stilton or Roquefort which is created using Penicillium roqueforti spores. Molds used in cheese production are usually non-toxic and are thus safe for human consumption; however, mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxins, roquefortine C, patulin, or others) may accumulate due to fungal spoilage during cheese ripening or storage.

Many mushroom species are toxic to humans, with toxicities ranging from slight digestive problems or allergic reactions as well as hallucinations to severe organ failures and death. Some of the most deadly mushrooms belong to the genera Inocybe, Cortinarius, and most infamously, Amanita. The latter genus includes the destroying angel (A. virosa) and the death cap (A. phalloides), the most common cause of deadly mushroom poisoning. The false morel (Gyromitra esculenta) is considered a delicacy by some when cooked, yet can be highly toxic when eaten raw. Tricholoma equestre was considered edible until being implicated in some serious poisonings causing rhabdomyolysis.

Fly agaric mushrooms (A. muscaria) also cause occasional poisonings, mostly as a result of ingestion for use as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic properties. Historically, fly agaric was used by Celtic Druids in Northern Europe and the Koryak people of north-eastern Siberia for religious or shamanic purposes. It is difficult to accurately identify a safe mushroom without proper training and knowledge, thus it is often advised to assume that a mushroom in the wild is poisonous and not to consume it.
The Chytridiomycota are commonly known as chytrids. These fungi are ubiquitous with a worldwide distribution; chytrids produce zoospores that are capable of active movement through aqueous phases with a single flagellum. Consequently, some taxonomists had earlier classified them as protists on the basis of the flagellum. Molecular phylogenies, inferred from the rRNA-operon sequences representing the 18S, 28S, and 5.8S ribosomal subunits, suggest that the Chytrids are a basal fungal group divergent from the other fungal divisions, consisting of four major clades with some evidence for paraphyly or possibly polyphyly. [100]
The Blastocladiomycota were previously considered a taxonomic clade within the Chytridiomycota. Recent molecular data and ultrastructural characteristics, however, place the Blastocladiomycota as a sister clade to the Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, and Dikarya (Ascomycota and Basiomycota). The blastocladiomycetes are fungi that are saprotrophs and parasites of all eukaryotic groups and undergo sporic meiosis unlike their close relatives, the chytrids, which mostly exhibit zygotic meiosis. [100]
The Neocallimastigomycota were earlier placed in the phylum Chytridomycota. Members of this small phylum are anaerobic organisms, living in the digestive system of larger herbivorous mammals and possibly in other terrestrial and aquatic environments. They lack mitochondria but contain hydrogenosomes of mitochondrial origin. As the related chrytrids, neocallimastigomycetes form zoospores that are posteriorly uniflagellate or polyflagellate.[12]
The Zygomycota contain the taxa, Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes, and reproduce sexually with meiospores called zygospores and asexually with sporangiospores. Black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is a common species that belongs to this group; another is Pilobolus, which is capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air. Medically relevant genera include Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. Molecular phylogenetic investigation has shown the Zygomycota to be a polyphyletic phylum with evidence of paraphyly within this taxonomic group. [110]
Members of the Glomeromycota are fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizae with higher plants. Only one species has been observed forming zygospores; all other species solely reproduce asexually. The symbiotic association between the Glomeromycota and plants is ancient, with evidence dating to 400 million years ago.

Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.The Ascomycota, commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes, constitute the largest taxonomic group within the Eumycota. These fungi form meiotic spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a special sac-like structure called an ascus. This division includes morels, a few mushrooms and truffles, single-celled yeasts (e.g., of the genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Candida), and many filamentous fungi living as saprotrophs, parasites, and mutualistic symbionts. Prominent and important genera of filamentous ascomycetes include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. Many ascomycetes species have only been observed undergoing asexual reproduction (called anamorphic species), but molecular data has often been able to identify their closest teleomorphs in the Ascomycota. Because the products of meiosis are retained within the sac-like ascus, several ascomyctes have been used for elucidating principles of genetics and heredity (e.g. Neurospora crassa).
Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust (fungus) and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains. Other important Basidiomyces include the maize pathogen,Ustilago maydis, human commensal species of the genus Malassezia, and the opportunistic human pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans.
Because of some similarities in morphology and lifestyle, the slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes) were formerly classified in the kingdom Fungi. Unlike true fungi, however, the cell walls of these organisms contain cellulose and lack chitin. Slime molds are unikonts like fungi, but are grouped in the Amoebozoa. Water molds are diploid bikonts, grouped in the Chromalveolate kingdom. Neither water molds nor slime molds are closely related to the true fungi, and, therefore, taxonomists no longer group them in the kingdom Fungi. Nonetheless, studies of the oomycetes and myxomycetes are still often included in mycology textbooks and primary research literature.

It has been suggested that the nucleariids, currently grouped in the Choanozoa, may be a sister group to the eumycete clade, and as such could be included in an expanded fungal kingdom.
---monera kingdom---
*****Monera are bacteria and other mostly tiny, single-celled organisms whose genetic material is loose in the cell. The genetic material of plants, animals, and other eukaryotes (true nucleus), on the other hand, is held in the cell's nucleus. While the Monera were briefly understood to be one of five biological kingdoms, it is now understood to comprise two kingdoms: the eubacteria and the archaebacteria. The Monera kingdom included most organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (that is, no nucleus). For this reason, the kingdom was sometimes called Prokaryota or Prokaryotae.

Monera has since been divided into Archaea and Bacteria, forming the more recent six-kingdom system and three-domain system. All new schemes abandon the Monera and now treat the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya as separate domains or kingdoms.

Prior to the five-kingdom model with its Monera kingdom, these organisms were classified as two separate divisions of plants: the Schizomycetes (bacteria) were considered fungi, and the Cyanophyta were considered blue-green algae. The latter are now considered a group of bacteria, typically called the cyanobacteria and are now known not to be closely related to plants, fungi, or animals.
Traditionally organisms were classified as animal, vegetable, or mineral as in Systema Naturae. After the discovery of microscopy, attempts were made to fit microscopic organisms into either the plant or animal kingdom. In 1866 Ernst Haeckel proposed a three kingdom system which added Protista as a new kingdom that contained most microscopic organisms. One of his eight major divisions of Protista was called Moneres. Haeckel's Moneres subcategory included known bacterial groups such as Vibrio. Haeckel's Protista kingdom also included eukaryotic organisms now classified as Protist. It was later decided that Haeckel's Protista kingdom had proven to be too diverse to be seriously considered one single kingdom.

Although it was generally accepted that one could distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes on the basis of the presence of a nucleus, mitosis versus binary fission as a way of reproducing, size, and other traits, the monophyly of the kingdom Monera (or for that matter, whether classification should be according to phylogeny) was controversial for many decades. Although distinguishing between prokaryotes from eukaryotes as a fundamental distinction is often credited to a 1937 paper by Edouard Chatton (little noted until 1962), he did not emphasize this distinction more than other biologists of his era. Roger Stanier and C. B. van Niel believed that the bacteria (a term which at the time did not include blue-green algae) and the blue-green algae had a single origin, a conviction which culminated in Stanier writing in a letter in 1970, "I think it is now quite evident that the blue-green algae are not distinguishable from bacteria by any fundamental feature of their cellular organization". Other researchers, such as E. G. Pringsheim writing in 1949, suspected separate origins for bacteria and blue-green algae. In 1974, the influential Bergey's Manual published a new edition coining the term cyanobacteria to refer to what had been called blue-green algae, marking the acceptance of this group within the Monera.

In 1969, Robert Whittaker published a proposed five kingdom system for classification of living organisms. Whittaker's system placed most single celled organisms into either the prokaryotic Monera or the eukaryotic Protista. The other three kingdoms in his system were the eukaryotic Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae. Whittaker, however, did not believe that all his kingdoms were monophyletic.

In 1977, a PNAS paper by Carl Woese and George Fox demonstrated that the archaea (initially called archaebacteria) are not significantly closer in relationship to the bacteria than they are to eukaryotes. The paper received front-page coverage in The New York Times and great controversy initially, but the conclusions have since become accepted, leading to replacement of the kingdom Monera with the two kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea.


*****G#11-II-OLMC*****

Sigma said...

Kingdom Monera:
Monera are bacteria and other mostly tiny, single-celled organisms whose genetic material is loose in the cell. The genetic material of plants, animals, and other eukaryotes (true nucleus), on the other hand, is held in the cell's nucleus. While the Monera were briefly understood to be one of five biological kingdoms, it is now understood to comprise two kingdoms: the eubacteria and the archaebacteria. The Monera kingdom included most organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (that is, no nucleus). For this reason, the kingdom was sometimes called Prokaryota or Prokaryotae.

Kingdom Protista:
Protists, are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is no longer recognized in modern taxonomy.[1] The protists do not have much in common besides a relatively simple organization -- either they are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues. This simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi, animals and plants.

Kingdom Fungi:
A fungus is a eukaryotic organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi. The fungi are a monophyletic group, also called the Eumycota ("true fungi" or eumycetes), that is phylogenetically distinct from the morphologically similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes). The fungi are heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall, with the majority of fungal species growing as multicellular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium; some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction of the fungi is commonly via spores, often produced on specialized structures or in fruiting bodies. Some species have lost the ability to form reproductive structures, and propagate solely by vegetative growth. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples of fungi. The fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, yet the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi, known as mycology, often falls under a branch of botany.

Kingdom Plantae:
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes . Green plants, sometimes called metaphytes or viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.

Kingdom Animalia:
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms for sustenance.

B-4 II-OLMC

maji said...

+++Kingdom Monera+++
The Kingdom Monera consists entirely of the bacteria - very small one-celled organisms. To get an idea of just how small bacteria are, take a look at the width of a millimeter - the smallest units on the metric side of a ruler. A thousand bacteria can sit side by side in just 1 tiny millimeter!

Despite their small size, bacteria are the most abundant of any organism on Earth. And they're everywhere! Bacteria can be found in the air, soil, water, on you, and inside you. In fact, there are more bacterial cells inside your gut and on your skin than there are cells in your entire body - no matter how many times you try to wash them off!

The cells of all bacteria (and therefore, the cells of all Monerans) are classified as "prokaryotic", the simplest and most ancient of the cell types. Prokaryotes lack many of the structures found in the more complex, eukaryotic cells.

Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning. However, most bacteria are completely harmless and many even perform beneficial functions, such as turning milk into yogurt or cheese and helping scientists produce drugs to fight disease. Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.


+++Kingdom Protista+++
Members of the Kingdom Protista are the simplest of the eukaryotes. Protistans are an interesting assemblage of organisms classified for what they are not. Protistans lack characteristics shared by plants, fungi, and animals, but they're not bacteria. Essentially, this Kingdom is home for the "leftover" organisms that couldn't be classified elsewhere!

Protists can be unicellular, multicellular or colonial. Some move around and act like animals, others perform photosynthesis like plants, and still others seem to "think" they're fungi! You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they're both members of the protist kingdoms.


+++Kingdom Fungi+++
Though the appearance of many fungi may resemble plants, they are probably more closely related to animals. Fungi are not capable of performing photosynthesis, so must get their nourishment from other sources. Many fungi absorb nutrients directly from t he soil. Many others feed on dead and decaying organisms and therefore have an important role in the recycling of nutrients in natural systems. Still others feed on living organisms. Athlete's foot is a common fungus which feeds on a living host - you!

When you think of fungi, you probably think of the mushrooms we can buy at the supermarket or hunt for in the woods. However, those "mushrooms" are really just special structures called "fruiting bodies" produced by the fungus for reproduction. The rest of the fungus (and the biggest part) lives below the ground.

Fungi come in a wide variety of sizes and forms, and many have great economic importance. Tiny, one-celled yeasts are important for baking breads and fermenting wines, beers and vinegars. Many medicines are produced with the help of fungi, most notably, the antibiotic, Penicillin. If you leave your bread on the counter too long, you'll be able to observe a relative of the Penicillium mold for yourself!


+++Kingdom Plantae+++
Kingdom Plantae contains almost 300,000 different species of plants. It is not the largest kingdom, but it is a very important one!

In the process known as "photosynthesis", plants use the energy of the Sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into food (sugars) and oxygen. Photosynthesis by plants provides almost all the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere. Because plants can make their own food, they are the first step to many food chains in the world.

The first plants lived on land about 450 million years ago. Since then, plants have taken on many forms and are found in most places on Earth. Plants can live in dry places or wet places, low places or high places, hot places or cold places. Humans can't live in a world without plants, so it is very important to protect places that have plants!


+++Kingdom Animalia+++
With over 2 million species, Kingdom Animalia is the largest of the kingdoms in terms of its species diversity. But when you think of an "animal", what image comes to mind? While mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish are the most familiar to us , over half of all the animal species belong to a group of animals known as arthropods. Arthropods include animals such as centipedes, crabs, insects, and spiders. And with over a million species of arthropods, this means that the majority of animals species come from a group of critters that give most folks the creeps!

So, what exactly is an "animal"? With so much diversity among different animal species, it's difficult to imagine what they all might have in common. First, animals are "multicellular" (composed of many cells). In most animals, these cells are organized into tissues that make up different organs and organ systems. Second, all animals are heterotrophs (= "other feeder"), meaning that they must get their food by eating other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and other animals. (Plants are referred to as autotrophs or "self feeders") because they produce their own food by the process of photosynthesis.) In addition, all animals require oxygen for their metabolism , can sense and respond to their environment, and have the capacity to reproduce sexually (though many reproduce asexually as well). During their development from a fertilized egg to adult, all animals pass through a series of embryonic stages as part of their normal life cycle. Though frogs and humans don't look very much alike, we share many features in common during our embryonic phase.

G#5...II - OLMC

B1 OLHR Matthew said...

Topic Outline:

Kingdom Monerans

~They are the Simplest life forms.
~They are Single-celled
~Moslty living in chains or clusters.
~Subdivided into bacteria (consumers) and Cyanobacteria (producers with chlorophyll)
~They dont move
~They can also be helpful like the one that I had read in one article that they live in the intestines of cow and they aid in digestion.
~But they are also harmful because they cause some diseases.
~They absorb nutrients from outside their bodies
~Some monerans show plant-like characteristics such as the process of photosynthesis. Some monerans must get energy from the sunlight like plants.
~ome monerans also show animal-like characteristics. absorb elements and organic compounds to get their energy. Animals have to eat and absorb organic compounds to get energy.

Structure of Monerans
Example Cell Structure of Monerans
Examples:
1. Streptococcus
2. Staphylococcus epidermis - found at the skin
3. Staphylococcus aureus - found at the nostrils
4. Escherichia coli - found in the intestine
5. Neisseria

Kingdom Protists
~More complex than Monera.
~Contain nuclei, and organelles (little organs)
~Subdivided into two groups Protozoans and Algae
~Some contain Chloroplasts.
~Some make own food.
~Can be divided into plant-like, fungus-like, and animal-like forms.
~They can be helpful by providing oxygen

Examples:
1. amoeba
2. diatom
3. euglena
4. paramecium
5. some algae
6. molds

Example Cell Structure of Protists

Kingdom Fungus
~They have Complex cell structures
~They are Divided into three groups: Threadlike, Club, and Sac
~They are not plants
~Reproduce by spores
~Ecologically pivotal roles
~cannot move
~Absorb nutrients from other organisms
~Don’t contain chloroplast.

Examples
1. Mildew
2. molds
3. yeast
4. mushrooms
5. puffball

Example Cell Structure of Fungus


Kingdom Plantae
~Multicellular, complex cell structure, with cell walls and chloroplasts
~Two groups: vascular and nonvascular
~Plants are food for animals.
~Make own food.
~Can’t move.
~Eukaryotic
~Autotrophic
~Helpful to humans by providing food and oxygen

Examples:
1. Trees
2. algae
3. mosses
4. ferns
5. flowering plants


Example Cell Structure of Plants


Animal Kingdom

~Divided into invertebrates and vertebrates.
Invertebrates have NO backbone, vertebrates DO!
~Move From Place To Place.
~Don’t make Their Own Food.
~Some eat meat, plants or both.
Digest food.
~helpful to humans give food
~heterotrophic
~digest food inside the body


Example Cell Structure of Plants

(Kanina wala pa naka post dito ha ngaun ang dami na)

cee said...

G-12 OLHR

*Kingdom Monera:
-no true nucleus:prokaryote(genetic material scattered and not enclosed by a membranes)
-some move(flagellum);others don't.
-some make their own (autotrophic);others can't make their own food (heterotrophic)

>examples:bacteria, blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria)

*KINGDOM PROTISTA (protists) -

*1 cell
*have a true nucleus - eukaryote
*some move (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia); others don't
*some are autotrophic; others are heterotrophic
*examples - amoeba, diatom, euglena, paramecium, some algae (unicellular), etc

*KINGDOM FUNGI -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*mainly do not move from place to place
*heterotrophic (food is digested outside of fungus)
*examples - mushroom, mold, puffball, shelf/bracket fungus, yeast, etc.


*KINGDOM PLANTAE (plants) -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*do not move
*autotrophic
*examples - multicellular algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants (dandelions, roses, etc.), trees, etc

*KINGDOM ANIMALIA (animals) -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*do move
*heterotrophic
*examples - sponge, jellyfish, insect, fish, frog, bird, man

cee said...

*Kingdom Monera:
-no true nucleus:prokaryote(genetic material scattered and not enclosed by a membranes)
-some move(flagellum);others don't.
-some make their own (autotrophic);others can't make their own food (heterotrophic)

>examples:bacteria, blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria)

*KINGDOM PROTISTA (protists) -

*1 cell
*have a true nucleus - eukaryote
*some move (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia); others don't
*some are autotrophic; others are heterotrophic
*examples - amoeba, diatom, euglena, paramecium, some algae (unicellular), etc

*KINGDOM FUNGI -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*mainly do not move from place to place
*heterotrophic (food is digested outside of fungus)
*examples - mushroom, mold, puffball, shelf/bracket fungus, yeast, etc.

*KINGDOM PLANTAE (plants) -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*do not move
*autotrophic
*examples - multicellular algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants (dandelions, roses, etc.), trees, etc

*KINGDOM ANIMALIA (animals) -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*do move
*heterotrophic
*examples - sponge, jellyfish, insect, fish, frog, bird, man

B1 OLHR Matthew said...

PAHABOL NA EXAMPLES NG ANIMALS NALIMUTAN PALA

1. Fish
2. Goat
3. Scorpion
4. Bats
5. Rabbit

AMIEEL :) said...

B5 OLHR



`Monera
- they are bacteria. mostly tiny.
- airborne.
- they are single celled
- prokaryote.
- they do not have true nucleus
- some are autotrophs, some are heterothrops.
- immobile

examples:
• Neisseria
• Staphylococcus epidermis
• Staphylococcus aureus
• E Coli
• Cyanobacteria
• Streptococcus

`Protista
- more complex than monera
- multicellular
- eukaryote
- w/o specialized tissues.
- many protists live in water or wet places.
- some can move (flagella) some don't.

examples
• Kinetoplastids
• Apicomplexa
• Euglena
• Amoeba
• Paramecium
• Toxoplasma
• Ulva
• Porphyra
• Macrocytis
• Labyrinthulomycetes

`Fungus
- more complex than protista
- heterotrophic
- do not move from place to place
- they feed on dead matter
- multicellular
- eukaryote
- they have filaments called hyape
- some edible, some are not. (hehe)
- they are often thought as plants.

example
• Yeast
• Molds
• Mushrooms
• Puffballs
• Mildew
• Bracket Fungus

`Plantae
- more complex than fungus
- multicellular; they have cell walls
- they have nuclei
- immobile
- eukaryote
- autotrophs
- contains Chloroplasts
- undergo Photosynthesis
- give and take relationship with Animalia (provides oxygen)

examples:
• Ferns
• Pine Tree
• Roses
• Grasses
• Bamboo
• Daffodils
• Sampaguita
• Hyacints
• Malaysian Mumps
• Sunflowers

`Animalia
- the most complex of all kingdoms
- multicellular (of course)
- motile - moves independently and freely
- heterotrophs
- they're structures are developed.
- give and take relationship with plantae (provides carbon dioxide)

examples:
• Frogs
• Lions
• Skunk
• Whales
• Dolphins
• Humans! Man
• Cheetah
• Sloth
• Shrew
• Hedgehog

G15 : II-OLMC said...

5 Kingdoms of Living Organisms:

1. Monerans or Monera– are one-celled organisms with simple cell structure. It is microscopic in size and it has no nucleus. Some move, others don’t. Some can process their own food (autotrophic), others can’t (heterotrophic).

examples: Bacteria, Cocci, Bacilli, Blue-green algae & Nostoc


2. Protists or Protista– are one-celled organisms with more complex cell structure than monerans. Mostly microscopic and it has nucleus. Some can move, others can’t. Some are autotrophic, others are heterotrophic.
examples: Protozoa, Paramecium, One-celled algae, Euglena & Diatoms


3. Fungi – are many celled organisms that absorb food decaying materials or from living things. They are decomposers and it can’t move. They have nuclei and they are heterotrophic.

examples: Bread mold, Mushroom, Yeast & Buff balls


4. Plants or Plantae – are complex in structure and made up of many cells. They can make their own food. Its cells have cell walls. It can be nonvascular or vascular plants.

examples: Green & Red algae, Moss, Liverwort, Fern, Spruce & Appie


5. Animals or Animalia – are many-celled organisms that eat food. Most are able to move around on their own.

examples: Salmon (fish), Lizard (reptiles), Dog (mammals), Eagle (birds) & Clam

FaNgET said...

--animalia--

Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms for sustenance.



--plantae--

Kingdom Plantae contains nearly 300,000 different species of plants. Although this does not make it the largest kingdom, many might argue that it just may be the most important one.
In the process known as "photosynthesis ", plants use the energy of the Sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into food (sugars) and oxygen. This single chemical reaction provides virtually all the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and nearly all the food required by living things. Although some protists andIt is a complex chemical process by which plants and other autotrophs create the energy needed for biological life. bacteria are capable of performing photosynthesis, plants are responsible for most of the photosynthesis done on Earth.

The ancestors of modern plants evolved in the seas nearly 700 million years ago. Another 265 million years passed before the first plants appeared on land. These early land plants looked very different than the plants you're familiar with today. In fact, many of them lacked true roots, stems, and leaves - the very structures we tend to associate with plants in general! Since then, plants have taken on a variety of forms and are found in most places on Earth.


--Monera--

-single-celled
-no true nucleus- (prokaryotik)
-same move(flagellum); others dont
-some make their own food but some are dont make their own food.

The Kingdom Monera consists entirely of the bacteria - very small one-celled organisms. To get an idea of just how small bacteria are, take a look at the width of a millimeter - the smallest units on the metric side of a ruler. A thousand bacteria can sit side by side in just 1 tiny millimeter!
Despite their small size, bacteria are the most abundant of any organism on Earth. And they're everywhere! Bacteria can be found in the air, soil, water, on you, and inside you. In fact, there are more bacterial cells inside your gut and on your skin than there are cells in your entire body - no matter how many times you try to wash them off!

The cells of all bacteria (and therefore, the cells of all Monerans) are classified as "prokaryotic", the simplest and most ancient of the cell types. Prokaryotes lack many of the structures found in the more complex, eukaryotic cells.

Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning. However, most bacteria are completely harmless and many even perform beneficial functions, such as turning milk into yogurt or cheese and helping scientists produce drugs to fight disease. Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.


--protista--

-single - celled
-eukaryote
-some are autotrophic; others are heterotrophic

example:
amoeba, diatom, euglera, paramecium, some algae, etc.

Members of the Kingdom Protista are the simplest of the eukaryotes. Protistans are an interesting assemblage of organisms classified for what they are not. Protistans lack characteristics shared by plants, fungi, and animals, but they're not bacteria. Essentially, this Kingdom is home for the "leftover" organisms that couldn't be classified elsewhere!
Protists can be unicellular, multicellular or colonial. Some move around and act like animals, others perform photosynthesis like plants, and still others seem to "think" they're fungi! You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they're both members of the protist kingdoms.


--Fungi--

-multi cellular
-have nuclei
-mainly do not move from place to place.
-heterothropic(food digested

example: mold, mushroom etc



The Place of Fungi in the Six Kingdoms of Life

A Brief Background

There are over two million different living organisms in the world today which must be sorted into groups to aid our study of them. In dealing with diversity, classification is essential for efficient thought. Until quite recently, living organisms were divided into two kingdoms, the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom. The animal kingdom contained mainly motile organisms which fed heterotrophically, and the plant kingdom contained mainly static organisms which fed autotrophically by photosynthesis. Fungi were regarded as plants since they have a cell wall and are immotile. With only two kingdoms however, certain organisms such as protozoa could, in effect, jump from one kingdom to the other! It was not until 1866 that this classification system was altered. Haeckel, a follower of Darwin, postulated a third kingdom - the protista. This kingdom was to contain all microscopic organisms, including bacteria, protozoa and fungi. With the advent of the electron microscope in the 1950s, the basic differences between bacteria and other organisms became visible. Two domains were thus created; bacteria, with their lack of a distinct nucleus, led to their separation into the prokaryote domain; and the eukaryote domain which housed all other organisms.

--thats all.. hehe..
b8-olmc

angelalouise said...

G - 25 :: OLMC

-- ANIMALS kingdom animalia
`are the most complex organisms on Earth. Animals are multi-celled organisms, eat food for survival and have nervous systems. They are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish.

-- PLANTS kingdom plantae
`contain chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis, a process in which plants convert energy from sunlight into food. Their cell walls are made sturdy by a material called cellulose. Plants are fixed in one place. They are divided into two groups: flower-and-fruit producing plants and those that don't produce flowers or fruits. They include garden flowers, agricultural crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses and conifers.

-- FUNGI
`are usually motionless organisms that absorb nutrients for survival. They include mushrooms, molds and yeasts.

-- PROTISTS kingdom protista
`are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Examples of protists include some algae, paramecium and amoeba.

-- MONERA
`are single-celled organisms that don't have a nucleus. Bacteria make up the entire kingdom. There are more forms of bacteria than any other organism on Earth. Some bacteria are beneficial to us, such as the ones found in yogurt. Others can cause us to get sick.

G - 25 :: OLMC

ieLLe =)) said...

G 14 - OLMC



1.) Monera - organisms that belongs to this kingdom are single-celled, prokaryotic meaning they don't have nucleus.Some of them can move and some cannot. Some are autotrophs meaning they can make their own food and others are heterotrophic.

-->examples are bacteria, bacilli and blue green algae.

2.) Protista - they are single-celled, eukaryotic meaning they have nuclei. some move because of silia, pseudopodia. some of them are autotrophic others are heterotrophic.

-->examples are amoeba, diatom, euglena and paramecium.

3.) Fungi - they are multi cellular. they are also eukaryotic. but they can't move. they are all heterotropic.

-->examples are mushroom, mold, puffball, bracket fungus and yeast.

4.) Plantae - they are multicellular. thay can make their own food so they are autotrophic. they are eukaryotic and can't move unless it is triggered.

-->examples are flowers, crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses.

5.) Animalia - they are multicellular and heterotrophs. they have nuclei. and they are moving.

-->examples are mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, fishes, insects,

dada said...

G10-OLMC

KiNGDOM ANiMALiA
`also called Metazoa
`multicellular
`heterotrophs
`with nuclei

e.g.
~jellyfish
~mosquito
~sponge
~human
~turtle


KiNGDOM PLANTAE
`multi-cellular organism
`autotrophs (photosynthesis)
`with nuclei

e.g.
~venus flytrap
~moss
~shrubs
~trees
~ferns


KiNGDOM FUNGi
`the fungus kingdom
`multi-cellular
`with nuclei
`heterotrophs

e.g.
~yellow parasol mushrooms
~molds
~yeast
~slime fungus
~stalked puffballs


KiNGDOM PROTiSTA
`called the protists
`uni-cellular
`microscopic
`eukaryote
`autotrophs/heterotrophs

e.g.
~sea weeds
~amoebas
~slime molds
~diatom
~paramecium


KiNGDOM MONERA
`prokaryotes
`unicellular
`autotrophs/heterotrophs

e.g.
~bacteria
~cyanobacteria

rmv said...

b-21 OLMC
PLANTAE........
Kingdom Plantae contains nearly 300,000 different species of plants. Although this does not make it the largest kingdom, many might argue that it just may be the most important one.

In the process known as "photosynthesis ", plants use the energy of the Sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into food (sugars) and oxygen. This single chemical reaction provides virtually all the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and nearly all the food required by living things. Although some protists andIt is a complex chemical process by which plants and other autotrophs create the energy needed for biological life. bacteria are capable of performing photosynthesis, plants are responsible for most of the photosynthesis done on Earth.

The ancestors of modern plants evolved in the seas nearly 700 million years ago. Another 265 million years passed before the first plants appeared on land. These early land plants looked very different than the plants you're familiar with today. In fact, many of them lacked true roots, stems, and leaves - the very structures we tend to associate with plants in general! Since then, plants have taken on a variety of forms and are found in most places on Earth.

ANIMALIA...........
All animals are members of the Kingdom Animalia, also called Metazoa. This Kingdom does not contain the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera, includes bacteria, blue-green algae) or the protists (Kingdom Protista, includes unicellular eukaryotic organisms). All members of the Animalia are multicellular, and all are heterotrophs (that is, they rely directly or indirectly on other organisms for their nourishment). Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity.

Animal cells lack the rigid cell walls that characterize plant cells. The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues, each tissue specialized to some degree to perform specific functions. In most, tissues are organized into even more specialized organs. Most animals are capable of complex and relatively rapid movement compared to plants and other organisms. Most reproduce sexually, by means of differentiated eggs and sperm. Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material. The development of most animals is characterized by distinctive stages, including a zygote, formed by the product of the first few division of cells following fertilization; a blastula, which is a hollow ball of cells formed by the developing zygote; and a gastrula, which is formed when the blastula folds in on itself to form a double-walled structure with an opening to the outside, the blastopore.

Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of animals inhabit the earth; the exact number is not known and even our estimates are very rough. Animals range in size from no more than a few cells to organisms weighing many tons, such as blue whales and giant squid. By far most species of animals are insects, with groups such as mollusks and nematodes also being especially diverse. By this measure our own group, the vertebrates, is relatively inconsequential.

PROTISTA....
Members of the Kingdom Protista are the simplest of the eukaryotes. Protists are an unusual group of organisms that were put together because they don't really seem to belong to any other group. Some protists perform photosynthesis like plants while others move around and act like animals, but protists are neither plants nor animals. They're not fungi either - even though some might like to "think" they are!

In some ways, the Kingdom Protista is home for the "leftover" organisms that couldn't be classified elsewhere. You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they're both members of this kingdom.

MONeRA.....


Bacteria
Click on image for full size (22K jpeg)
Image courtesy of JPL/NASA
The Kingdom Monera consists entirely of the bacteria - very small one-celled organisms. To get an idea of just how small bacteria are, take a look at the width of a millimeter - the smallest units on the metric side of a ruler. A thousand bacteria can sit side by side in just 1 tiny millimeter!

Despite their small size, bacteria are the most abundant of any organism on Earth. And they're everywhere! Bacteria can be found in the air, soil, water, on you, and inside you. In fact, there are more bacterial cells inside your gut and on your skin than there are cells in your entire body - no matter how many times you try to wash them off!

The cells of all bacteria (and therefore, the cells of all Monerans) are classified as "prokaryotic", the simplest and most ancient of the cell types. Prokaryotes lack many of the structures found in the more complex, eukaryotic cells.

Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning. However, most bacteria are completely harmless and many even perform beneficial functions, such as turning milk into yogurt or cheese and helping scientists produce drugs to fight disease. Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.

FUNGI...
Fungi are not capable of performing photosynthesis, so must get their nourishment from other sources. Many fungi absorb nutrients directly from t he soil. Many others feed on dead and decaying organisms and therefore have an important role in the recycling of nutrients in natural systems. Still others feed on living organisms. Athlete's foot is a common fungus which feeds on a living host - you!

When you think of fungi, you probably think of the mushrooms we can buy at the supermarket or hunt for in the woods. However, those "mushrooms" are really just special structures called "fruiting bodies" produced by the fungus for reproduction. The rest of the fungus (and the biggest part) lives below the ground.

Fungi come in a wide variety of sizes and forms, and many have great economic importance. Tiny, one-celled yeasts are important for baking breads and fermenting wines, beers and vinegars. Many medicines are produced with the help of fungi, most notably, the antibiotic, Penicillin. If you leave your bread on the counter too long, you'll be able to observe a relative of the Penicillium mold for yourself!

Jabeng said...

G-23 II-OLMC

Kingdom Monera (monerans)
Examples:
- bacteria
- blue green bacteria
- cocci
- bacilli
- spirilla

Kingdom Protista (protists)
- amoeba
- diatom
- euglena
- paramecium
- algae

Kingdom Fungus (fungi)
- mushroom
- mold
- puffball
- shelf
- bracket

Kingdom Plantae (plants)
- mosses
- multicellular algae
- ferns
- roses
- dandelions

Kingdom Animalia (animals)
- sponge
- jellyfish
- insect
- fish
- frog

Jasmine Bantigue said...

*Kingdom of Anmilia*

The word "animal" comes from the Latin word animale, neuter of animalis, and is derived from anima, meaning vital breath or soul.
They are known as multi- celled organism and they can't produce there own food they are know to be heterotrophs. Examples-sponges, jellyfish, insect, fish, frog, humans.

Kingdom Plantae
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae

*Plants are food for animals.
*They Make own food.
*Can’t move or no movements involve.
*They are Autotrophic
*They are even Eukaryotic
*It is a good provider to humans to provide the important needs.

-Examples-Trees,algae,
ferns, and flowering plants

-G#1-


dapat kagabi kaso po nawala kami connection ...

krysteng said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
krysteng said...

G7-ii olmc




Monera

The monera are the simplest of organisms, almost all microscopic. Each individual is just one prokaryotic cell—a cell that has no membrane bound nucleus or organelles; that is, there are no structures inside the cell. Some monera can produce their own food by photosynthesis (using energy from the sun to produce food) like plants do, but many cannot. Some have whip like flagella that allow them to move. Bacteria and blue-green bacteria belong to the monera.

Since the adoption of the five kingdoms, science has determined that some prokaryotes are so different from the rest that the kingdom must be subdivided. These organisms, which evolved along a completely different route, tend to live in extremely harsh environments. They are called archaeobacteria (sometimes spelled archeobacteria). Thus, the kingdom monera may soon be divided into two: archeobacteria and eubacteria, making six kingdoms


Protista

Like the monera, protista are single-celled organisms; however, the major difference is the organization of the cell. Protista are eukaryotes: a eukaryotic cell has a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles inside, separate from the rest of the cell contents. Most protista can move. Some produce their own food by photosynthesis; others must ingest other living things. Amoebae, some algae, diatoms and other organisms belong to the protista.

Fungi

Fungi include both single-celled (yeasts) and multicellular (molds, mushrooms etc.) organisms that are generally visible to the naked eye. Some are quite large. Fungal cells have nuclei; however, they don’t move on their own, nor do they make their own food. Most fungi get nutrients from decaying organic material.

Plantae

Plantae includes the plants: living things that don’t move, and that produce their own food through photosynthesis. Plants are multicellular, composed of eukaryotic cells. Plants are generally green, visible to the naked eye, and found in great diversity in many environments on Earth

Animalia

Animals belong to animalia: multicellular (eukaryotic) organisms that move about and must obtain nutrients by consuming other organisms. Kingdom animalia includes familiar organisms such as mammals, birds, and reptiles, but also less typical things like jellyfish.

or. :))


KINGDOM MONERA (monerans) -

*1 cell
*no true nucleus - prokaryote (genetic material scattered and not enclosed by a membrane)
*some move (flagellum); others don't
*some make their own food (autotrophic); others can't make their own food (heterotrophic)
*examples - bacteria, blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria)


KINGDOM PROTISTA (protists) -

*1 cell
*have a true nucleus - eukaryote
*some move (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia); others don't
*some are autotrophic; others are heterotrophic
*examples - amoeba, diatom, euglena, paramecium, some algae (unicellular), etc

KINGDOM FUNGI -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*mainly do not move from place to place
*heterotrophic (food is digested outside of fungus)
*examples - mushroom, mold, puffball, shelf/bracket fungus, yeast, etc.

KINGDOM PLANTAE (plants) -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*do not move
*autotrophic
*examples - multicellular algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants (dandelions, roses, etc.), trees, etc

KINGDOM ANIMALIA (animals) -

*multicellular
*have nuclei
*do move
*heterotrophic
*examples - sponge, jellyfish, insect, fish, frog, bird, man

..mAyO! :]] said...

+'.kingdOm pLantae.'+

The Plantae includes all land plants: mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants, and so on—an amazing range of diverse forms. With more than 250,000 species, they are second in size only to the arthropoda.

Plants have been around for a very long time. The plants first appeared in the Ordovician, but did not begin to resemble modern plants until the Late Silurian. By the close of the Devonian, about 360 million years ago, there were a wide variety of shapes and sizes of plants around, including tiny creeping plants and tall forest trees.

The most striking, and important, feature of plants is their green color, the result of a pigment called chlorophyll. Plants use chlorophyll to capture light energy, which fuels the manufacture of food—sugar, starch, and other carbohydrates. Without these food sources, most life on earth would be impossible. There would still be mushrooms and algae, but there would be no fruits, vegetables, grains, or any animals (which ultimately rely on plants for their food too!)

Another important contribution of plants is their shaping of the environment. Think of a place without plants. The only such places on earth are the arctic wastelands, really arid deserts, and the deep ocean. Everywhere else, from the tundra to the rainforest to the desert, is populated by plants. In fact, when we think of a particular landscape, it is the plants which first come to mind. Try to picture a forest without trees, or a prairie without grasses. It is the plants which produce and maintain the terrestrial environment as we know it.

+'.kingdOm animalia.'+

All animals are members of the Kingdom Animalia, also called Metazoa. This Kingdom does not contain the prokaryotes (Kingdom Monera, includes bacteria, blue-green algae) or the protists (Kingdom Protista, includes unicellular eukaryotic organisms). All members of the Animalia are multicellular, and all are heterotrophs (that is, they rely directly or indirectly on other organisms for their nourishment). Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity.

Animal cells lack the rigid cell walls that characterize plant cells. The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues, each tissue specialized to some degree to perform specific functions. In most, tissues are organized into even more specialized organs. Most animals are capable of complex and relatively rapid movement compared to plants and other organisms. Most reproduce sexually, by means of differentiated eggs and sperm. Most animals are diploid, meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material. The development of most animals is characterized by distinctive stages, including a zygote, formed by the product of the first few division of cells following fertilization; a blastula, which is a hollow ball of cells formed by the developing zygote; and a gastrula, which is formed when the blastula folds in on itself to form a double-walled structure with an opening to the outside, the blastopore.

Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of animals inhabit the earth; the exact number is not known and even our estimates are very rough. Animals range in size from no more than a few cells to organisms weighing many tons, such as blue whales and giant squid. By far most species of animals are insects, with groups such as mollusks and nematodes also being especially diverse. By this measure our own group, the vertebrates, is relatively inconsequential.

Research continues on the evolutionary relationships of the major groups of animals. For the sake of convenience, we shall follow the system outlined in Hickman and Roberts (1994), but for some groups we shall incorporate the results of current research in our classification and discussion.

+'.kingdOm protista.'+

Members of the Kingdom Protista are the simplest of the eukaryotes. Protistans are an interesting assemblage of organisms classified for what they are not. Protistans lack characteristics shared by plants, fungi, and animals, but they're not bacteria. Essentially, this Kingdom is home for the "leftover" organisms that couldn't be classified elsewhere!

Protists can be unicellular, multicellular or colonial. Some move around and act like animals, others perform photosynthesis like plants, and still others seem to "think" they're fungi! You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they're both members of the protist kingdoms.

+'.kingdOm monera.'+

Monera are bacteria and other mostly tiny, single-celled organisms whose genetic material is loose in the cell. The genetic material of plants, animals, and other eukaryotes (true nucleus), on the other hand, is held in the cell's nucleus. While the Monera were briefly understood to be one of five biological kingdoms, it is now understood to comprise two kingdoms: the eubacteria and the archaebacteria. The Monera kingdom included most organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (that is, no nucleus). For this reason, the kingdom was sometimes called Prokaryota or Prokaryotae.

Monera has since been divided into Archaea and Bacteria, forming the more recent six-kingdom system and three-domain system. All new schemes abandon the Monera and now treat the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya as separate domains or kingdoms.

Prior to the five-kingdom model with its Monera kingdom, these organisms were classified as two separate divisions of plants: the Schizomycetes (bacteria) were considered fungi, and the Cyanophyta were considered blue-green algae. The latter are now considered a group of bacteria, typically called the cyanobacteria and are now known not to be closely related to plants, fungi, or animals.

+'.kingdOm fungi.'+

The Place of Fungi in the Six Kingdoms of Life

A Brief Background

There are over two million different living organisms in the world today which must be sorted into groups to aid our study of them. In dealing with diversity, classification is essential for efficient thought. Until quite recently, living organisms were divided into two kingdoms, the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom. The animal kingdom contained mainly motile organisms which fed heterotrophically, and the plant kingdom contained mainly static organisms which fed autotrophically by photosynthesis. Fungi were regarded as plants since they have a cell wall and are immotile. With only two kingdoms however, certain organisms such as protozoa could, in effect, jump from one kingdom to the other! It was not until 1866 that this classification system was altered. Haeckel, a follower of Darwin, postulated a third kingdom - the protista. This kingdom was to contain all microscopic organisms, including bacteria, protozoa and fungi. With the advent of the electron microscope in the 1950s, the basic differences between bacteria and other organisms became visible. Two domains were thus created; bacteria, with their lack of a distinct nucleus, led to their separation into the prokaryote domain; and the eukaryote domain which housed all other organisms.

In 1969, an American biologist, Whittaker, recognised that fungi are different from other eukaryotes in many essential aspects, so he designated them to a new kingdom. Whittaker's clarification of the system attempted to place organisms in kingdoms that more nearly resembled their supposed evolutionary relationships. This five kingdom approach to classifying organisms was an important step in the attempt to form groups that contain an ancestor and all its descendants (monophyletic groups) and to create a system where similarities and relationships may be seen. It had long been accepted that evolution had occurred since the publication of The Origin of Species (Darwin, 1859); where present species had evolved from earlier species and where similar species had a recent common ancestor, different species a more distant one. Thus a natural classification should mirror descent.

Whittaker noticed, for example, the methods of nutrient intake for the three main eukaryote kingdoms (Animals, plants and fungi) were completely different. Animals absorb nutrients internally, engulfing food by the action of ingestion. Plants too have a form of internal absorption, with the intake of energy from the sun by photosynthetic organelles (Chloroplasts). Fungi, however, are the only eukaryote who have to externally digest their food component prior to absorption. Characteristically, fungi dwell in a food source absorbing nutrients from the medium, and in many instances releasing digestive enzymes for external digestion.

In the last 30 years, recent advancements in technology, including DNA sequencing techniques, have placed a severe strain on Whittaker's five-kingdom system. At present, the dispute of the number of kingdoms required to classify all living and fossil taxa still is not concluded. Kingdoms are really the trunk and major branches of an evolutionary tree. Splitting the tree into kingdoms is an arbitrary process and depends whereabouts along the trunk and branches you make your cut. The higher you cut, the more kingdoms you will get. In fact some of the classification schemes which have been brought forward contain more than 15 kingdoms! A five-kingdom system of life has a charming simplicity. Unfortunately, throughout evolution, many losses and births of complex characters entangle this system. Therefore, down to molecular sequencing in particular, a six-kingdom system now seems necessary to enable us to place organisms in a fairer and more defined phylogenetic classification.

+'.g-12 OLMC.'+

G9 OLHR Kate said...

__KINGDOM ANIMALIA__
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms for sustenance. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction. Adults are diploid or polyploid. They have a few specialized reproductive cells, which undergo meiosis to produce smaller motile spermatozoa or larger non-motile ova. These fuse to form zygotes, which develop into new individuals. Many animals are also capable of asexual reproduction. This may take place through parthenogenesis, where fertile eggs are produced without mating, or in some cases through fragmentation.
Examples
FISH – goby fish
Almost three-forths of the world's surface is covered in water. This water is home to over 20,000 different species of fish. The earliest fossils of fish date back over 400 million yearsMost fish breathe through gills. Gills perform the gas exchange between the water and the fish's blood. They allow the fish to breathe oxygen in the water.Fishes are vertebrates that have a skeleton made of either bone or cartilage. About 95% of fishes have skeletons made of bone. These bony fishes have a swim bladder, a gas-filled sac, that they can inflate or deflate allowing them to float in the water even when not swimming.
MOLLUSKS – mussel
Mollusks were among the first inhabitants of the Earth. Fossils of mollusks have been found in rocks and date back over 500 million years. Mollusk fossils are usually well preserved because of their hard shell.Most mollusks have a soft, skin-like organ covered with a hard outside shell. Some mollusks live on land, such as the snail and slug. Other mollusks live in water, such as the oyster, mussel, clam, squid and octopus.
CRUSTACEANS – crabs
Crustaceans are a type of Arthropod. The name may not sound familiar, but you probably know them. Crustaceans live mostly in the ocean or other waters. Most commonly known crustaceans are the crab, lobster and barnacle.Crustaceans have a hard, external shell which protects their body. Crustaceans have a head and abdomen. The head has antennae which are part of their sensory system. The abdomen includes the heart, digestive system and reproductive system.
RODENTS – mice
The largest family of mammals are the rodents. These mammals are named rodent, which means "gnawing animal," because of their large incisor teeth and the way they eat. The two long pairs of incisors are used like chisels to gnaw on hard foods like nuts and wood. These incisors must grow continuously since they are worn down by gnawing
PRIMATES - humans
Humans are part of the primate family. Other common primates include the monkey, baboon, orangutan, chimpanzee and gorilla.Primates have several distinctive features that separate them from other mammals. Primates have well developed hands and feet, with fingers and toes. Their opposable thumb makes it easy for them to grab things.Primate eyes are forward in the head giving them stereoscopic vision. This allows them to judge distance.Primates also have large, highly developed brains. Their intelligence allows them to control and manipulate their environment. The highly developed visual center of the brain helps primates distinguish colors.
__KINGDOM PLANTAE__
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae.Plants are photosynthetic, eukaryotic, multicellular organisms of the kingdom Plantae characteristically producing embryos, containing chloroplasts, having cellulose cell walls, and lacking the power of locomotion.
Examples
- Palm tree
- Strawberry
- Ginko tree
- Mosses
- Ferns

__KINGDOM PROTISTA__

Protist are single-celled organisms which have true nucleus called eukaryote. Some of them move because of cilia and flagella but others don’t. Some are heterotrophic and some are autotrophic. This simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes.

Examples
Amoeba is a genus of protozoa that moves by means of pseudopods, and is well-known as a representative unicellular organism

Diatom one of the most common types of phytoplankton

Euglena single-celled organism. Currently, over 1000 species of Euglena have been described.

Paramecium group of unicellular ciliate protozoa, which are commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group, and range from about 50 to 350 μm in length, Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move

Algae a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms.

__KINGDOM MONERA__

Monera are bacteria and other mostly tiny, single-celled organisms whose genetic material is loose in the cell. The Monera kingdom included most organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization which have no nucleus called prokaryotic. Some have flagellum which allows them to move but others don’t. Some take thoer own food (autotrophic) while others can’t make their own food (heterotrophic).

Examples

Bacteria are a large group of unicellular microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Cyanobacteria bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis.

Coccus are any microorganism whose overall shape is spherical or nearly spherical.

Bacilli are gram-positive bacterias

Spirillum refers to a bacterium with a cell body that twists like a spiral

__KINGDOM FUNGUS__

Fungi is a multicellular organisms which have nuclei and mainly do not move from place to place. They are heterotrphic for they digest food outside the fungus. The fungi are a monophyletic group, also called the Eumycota The fungi are heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall, with the majority of fungal species growing as multicellular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium; some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual reproduction of the fungi is commonly via spores, often produced on specialized structures or in fruiting bodies. Some species have lost the ability to form reproductive structures, and propagate solely by vegetative growth.

Examples

Mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source

Mold include all species of microscopic fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments, called hyphae

Puffball feature is that they have gasterothecia in which the spores are produced internally; that is, the basidiocarp remains closed, or opens only after the spores have been released from the basidia.

Yeast eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species currently described; they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. Most reproduce asexually by budding, although a few do so by binary fission.

Bracket fungus produce shelf- or bracket-shaped fruiting bodies (conks) that lie in a close planar grouping of separate or interconnected horizontal rows.

G9-OLHR

B14-OLHR said...

The early Greeks tried to classify all inanimate objects as fire, air, earth, and water, and the Greek philosopher Aristotle further classified living things as either Plant or Animal. He

grouped animals into Land Dwellers, Water Dwellers, and Air Dwellers. This didn't work very well, as this system grouped elephants and earthworms, whales and water striders, flies

and falcons. These things aren't alike!

Botanists later tried to classify living creatures by means of locomotion, grouping butterflies and bats (flying), barnacles and barley (both rooted in place). This system of classification

didn't work out very well, either (bats and butterflies are pretty different, aren't they?), so other attempts were made.

The efforts to classify living things saw great progress in the work of Carl Linnaeus, whose book Systema Naturae ("The Natural Classification", based on his religious concept that you

could understand God by studying nature, his creation), was published in 1735. While some of his concepts have been significantly changed, we still keep much of his ideas

(hierarchical classification and system of binomial nomenclature).

Indeed, Earth is home to a vast variety of living things—organisms of every size and description that live and reproduce in myriad different ways. Scientists divide all these organisms

into groups with members that have basic similarities: the broadest divisions are called kingdoms. Currently, life on Earth is divided into five kingdoms: monera, protista, fungi, plantae,

and animalia.

KINGDOM MONERA

The monera are the simplest of organisms, almost all microscopic. Each individual is just one prokaryotic cell—a cell that has no membrane bound nucleus or organelles; that is,

there are no structures inside the cell. Some monera can produce their own food by photosynthesis (using energy from the sun to produce food) like plants do, but many cannot. Some

have whip like flagella that allow them to move. Bacteria and blue-green bacteria belong to the monera.

Bacteria are set apart from all other organisims because their cells lack nuclei (they are prokaryotic). All other organisims are eukaryotic, meaning that their cells contain nuclei.

Because of this fundamental difference, all prokaryotes have long been grouped together in one Kingdom, Monera. However, strong new evidence indicates that there are actually

two distinct groups of prokaryotes: Bacteria (or Eubacteria) and Archaea (or Archaebacteria). These two groups diverged from one another near the time of the origin of life! The

eukaryotes almost certainly evolved from the eubacteria shortly thereafter. Because of this new information, the taxonomy of the prokaryotes is in transition, and "Monera" will most

likely be replaced by two new Kingdoms in the near future: Kingdom Eubacteria and Kingdom Archaea.

MONERANS:

A. BACTERIA:
Bacteria are the oldest life forms on earth, dating back about 3.8 billion years.(For reference, the earth is about 4.6 billion years old. The human family only began to emergy about 3

million years ago.) Bacteria are ubiquitous, occurring at amazingly high densities in water and soil (and milk left out over night!). Most people are familiar with disease-causing

bacteria, but these organisims have many other important functions in nature. They are important decomposers. And many herbivores, such as cows and termites, rely on bacteria in

the digestive tract to break down plant material.

Bacteria have more versatility in their metabolisms than any other group of organisims. Many species are "chemoautotrophic," meaning they live off chemicals in their surroundings-not

food or light. No other organisims can do this! Some of these chemoautotrophs metabolize sulfur around hot thermal vents in the depths of the ocean, forming the base of the

foodchain in the only ecosystem we know which does NOT depend on the sun for energy!

Bacteria are also the only creatures on earth which can take nitrogen from the atmosphere and attach, or "fix" it, to other atoms and molecules. Green plants need these nitrogen

compounds in the soil to survive- they can not use the gaseous form of nitrogen in the air. Thus, "nitrogen-fixing" bacteria are acrucial link in the nitrogen cycle- one that all other

organisims depend on. Members of one family of plants, the legumes, form special symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixingbacteria in the soil.

KINDS OF BACTERIA AND EXAMPLES:
1. Cocci: are spherical
a. Streptococcus agalactiae
b. Streptococcus anginosus
c. Streptococcus bovis
d. Streptococcus canis
e. Streptococcus mitis
2. Bacilli: are rod-shaped
a. Bacillus anthracis
b. Bacillus cereus
c. Bacillus coagulans
d. Bacillus globigii
e. Bacillus infernus
3. Spirilla: are spiral
a. Spirillum Spirochetes
b. Spirillum Leptospira
c. Spirillum Borrelia
d. Spirillum Treponema pallidrum
e. Spirillum bipunctatum

B. BLUE-GREEN ALGAE
Phytosynthetic bacteria are called cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, and form some interesting symbiotic relationships with other species. For example, lichens are a symbiotic

relationship between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or a green alga.

Stromatolites of fossilized oxygen-producing cyanobacteria have been found from 2.8 billion years ago.The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to

have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by provoking an explosion of biodiversity and

leading to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms. Chloroplasts in plants and eukaryotic algae may have evolved from cyanobacteria via endosymbiosis.

Cyanobacteria are found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. Most are found in fresh water, while others are marine, occur in

damp soil, or even temporarily moistened rocks in deserts. A few are endosymbionts in lichens, plants, various protists, or sponges and provide energy for the host. Some live in the fur

of sloths, providing a form of camouflage.

EXAMPLES:
a. Nostoc
b. Oscillatoria
c. Gloeocapsa
d. Microcytis
e. Hapalasiphon


KINGDOM PROTISTA

Like the monera, protista are single-celled organisms; however, the major difference is the organization of the cell. Protista are eukaryotes: a eukaryotic cell has a membrane-bound

nucleus and other organelles inside, separate from the rest of the cell contents. Most protista can move. Some produce their own food by photosynthesis; others must ingest other living

things. Amoebae, some algae, diatoms and other organisms belong to the protista.

The protists are an odd lot. They are lumped together in one kingdom because nobody knows what else to do with them. All protists are (supposed to be): 1) eukaryotic and 2)

unicellular. While they are all eukaryotic, they aren't all unicellular. The algae in particular often occur in multicellular forms. Most of these are quite small, but some get to be rather

large such as seaweed and kelp.

The various groups of protists are almost certainly not close cousins evolutionarily speaking. They are often placed into three groups based on their method of obtaining energy.

Fungus-like protists absorb food from their surroundings. Plant-like protists (algae) are photsynthetic. And animal-like protists (protozoa) engulf food particles (i.e. eat). These three

groups probably have more in common with the kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia, respectively, than they do with one another. But it is very difficult to determine an accurate

phylogeny for these little critters-especially because some, like the genus Euglena, both eat AND conduct photosynthes. So for now, they remain one big, artificial "family."

Fungus-like protists known as slime molds are fascinating organisms, often studied for their unusual life cycle. Microscopic algae in the plankton form the base of most aquatic food

chains, assuming the role that green plants play on land. Protozoa are important players in plankton communities.

PROTISTS:

A. SINGLE-CELLED ALGAE:
Plant-like protists (algae) are photosynthetic.

Algae (a Latin plural) are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. The largest and most complex marine

forms are called seaweeds. They are photosynthetic, like plants, and "simple" because they lack the many distinct organs found in land plants. For that reason they are currently

excluded from being considered plants.

EXAMPLES
a. diatoms
b. euglema
c. dinoflagellates
d. Cryptomonads
e. Haptophyta

B. PROTOZOA
Animal like protists (protozoa) engulf food particles.

Protozoa are microorganisms classified as unicellular eukaryotes. While there is no exact definition of the term "protozoan", most scientists use theword to refer to a unicellular

heterotrophic protist, such as an amoeba or a ciliate. The term algae is used for microorganisms that photosynthesize. However, the distinction between protozoa and algae is often

vague. For example, the alga Dinobryon has chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but it can also feed on organic matter and is motile.

Protozoa usually range from 10–50 μm, but can grow up to 1 mm, and are easily seen under a microscope. Protozoa exist throughout aqueous environments and soil, occupying a

range of trophic levels. As predators, they prey upon unicellular or filamentous algae, bacteria, and microfungi. Protozoa play a role as both herbivores and consumers in the

decomposer link of the food chain. Protozoa also play a vital role in controlling bacteria populations and biomass. Protozoa may absorb food via their cellmembranes, some, e.g.

amoebas, surround food and engulf it, and yet others have openings or "mouth pores" into which they sweep food. All protozoa digest their food in stomach-like compartments called

vacuoles.

KINDS(based on locomotion) AND EXAMPLES:
1. Flagellates:
a. Giardia lamblia
b. Trypanosome
c. Chlamydomonas
d. Chytrids
e. Choanozoa
2. Amoeboids
a. Amoeba proteus
b. Entamoeba histolytica
c. Mytetozoa (slime molds)
d. Archamoebae
e. Tubulinea
3. Sporozoans:
a. Plasmodium knowles
b. Crytosporidium parvum
c. Cyclospora cayetanensis
d. Toxoplasma gondii
e. Karyolysus lacerate
4. Cilliates:
a. Balantidium coli
b. Paramecium
c. Tetrahynema
d. Vorticella
e. Didinium


KINGDOM FUNGI

Fungi are the great decomposers of the world (along with some help from the bacteria). They are multi-cellular eukaryotes, except for the yeasts which are unicellular. Although often

lumped with plants and algae as "flora" (as opposed to "fauna"- animals), fungi are actually not close relatives of the plants at all. All fungi are distinguished by having no motile

(free-moving) cells at any point during the life cycle. Fungi are also generally characterized by their method of obtaining energy, namely absorption of nutrients from their surroundings.

This sets them apart from plants,which use photosynthesis to obtain energy from the sun, and animals, which actively injest food. Another characteristic of fungi is cell walls enforced

with chitin, the same substance found in insect exoskeletons. (For comparison, plant cell walls are made of cellulose, and animal cells do not have cell walls at all.)

Fungi are mainly terrestrial, and grow in filaments called "hyphae" (singular = "hypha"). Tightly packed masses of hyphae called "mycelia" (singular = "mycelium") form larger

structures. The most familiar parts of fungi are spore-producing reproductive bodies such as mushrooms, toadstools, "shelves" of fungus on trees, puff balls, blue or green molds, etc.

These are the only visible part of many fungi, but the main "body" of the fungus is the hyphae down in the soil or rotten log (or loaf of bread!)

Most people are think of fungi only as mushrooms (or athlete's foot!). But they actually take on a great diversity of forms. One important aspect of fungi is their interaction with other

organisims. Many are parasitic. Fungi are responsible for several major plant diseases. But others are symbiotic. Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a green

alga or cyanobacterium.

Mycorrhizae ("fungus roots") are a mutually beneficial relationship between the roots of vascular plants and fungi. The very small, fine fungal hyphae are able to absorb minerals in the

soil much more efficiently the plant's roots. The plant makes use of the minerals accumulated by the fungus. In exchange, the fungus gets its energy by absorbing carbohydrates that

the plant makes via photosynthesis. About four-fifths of vascular plants form mycorrhizae, and many plants cannot survive without their fungal partners.

KINDS AND EXAMPLES

I. Multi-cellular
1. Mushrooms:
a. Amanita muscaria (fly agaric)
b. Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom)
c. Amanita pantherina (Panther cap)
d. Leucocoprinus bimbaumii (yellow, flower pot mushrooms)
e. Armillaria ostoyae (oyster mushrooms)
2. Molds:
a. Penicillium
b. Rhizopus oligosporus
c. Neurospora sitophila
d. Fusarium venenatum
e. Trichoderma

II. Single-celled
1. Yeasts:
a. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
b. pseudohyphae
c. Schizosaccharomycetes
d. Urediniomycetes
e. Basidiomycota

KINGDOM PLANTAE:

Plantae includes the plants: living things that don’t move, and that produce their own food through photosynthesis. Plants are multicellular, composed of eukaryotic cells. Plants are

generally green, visible to the naked eye, and found in great diversity in many environments on Earth

Plants are the very foundation of life on earth. Along with cyanobacteria and algae, plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy stored in carbohydrates like starches

and sugars. They accomplish this through a process called photosynthesis, which requires chemical compounds called photosynthetic pigments. By far the most common of these

pigments is chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color.

All other organinisms depend on the photosynthesizers for survival. Unable to obtain energy directly from the sun, animals must eat plants (or one another) and break down the energy

contained in their tissues. The final link in the cycle are decomposers like bacteria and fungi who convert dead plants and animals back into raw materials which new plants can use

again. Thus the whole web of life is driven by the sun's light, trapped and stored by the plants. (The one exception are some bacteria which can obtain energy directly from chemicals

in their environment.)

Besides harnessing solar energy, plants perform a second vital function: they produce oxygen. The process of photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and releases oxygen. This is the

opposite of what happens when we breathe- we take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Except for a few anaerobic bacteria and yeasts, all organisms "breathe" on a cellular level.

Thus all organisms need oxygen. Plants take up some of the excess carbon dioxide in the air, and replenish the oxygen as it is used up, thereby helping to maintain the composition of

the atmosphere.

Most scientists agree that early in the earth's history, there was no oxygen in the atmosphere. Millions of years of photsynthetic activity by plants and their ancestors probably helped to

oxygenate the air, creating the conditions that allowed other life forms (like people!) to evolve. (Newer evidence suggests that geologic events were also very important in oxygenating

the atmosphere. See Headline Universe.) For a timeline of early (pre-Cambrian) earth history, see Geologic History.

Plants have numerous, often complex interactions with other organisms. Herbivores, pollenators, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and micorrhizal fungi all have intimate relationships with

plants. Many insects, birds, and mammals have evolved closely with the particular plant or plants which they pollenate or eat.

KINDS AND EXAMPLES:
1. Non-vascular plants: without vascular tissue and so have no roots, stems, and leaves
a. Red algae
b. Moss
c. Green Algae
d. Liverworts
e. ferns

2. Vascular plants: with a vascular system or tubes that carry minerals
a. apples
b. spruce
c. mango
d. santol
e. coconut

KINGDOM ANIMALIA:

Animals belong to animalia: multicellular (eukaryotic) organisms that move about and must obtain nutrients by consuming other organisms. Kingdom animalia includes familiar

organisms such as mammals, birds, and reptiles, but also less typical things like jellyfish.

All animals share two basic characteristics: they are multicellular, and they obtain energy by injesting other organisms. Animals are also generally mobile, but this is not a hard and fast

rule.

Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some

undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning

they must ingest other organisms for sustenance.

KINDS AND EXAMPLES:
1. Poriferans: body has space in center; water flows through body
a. Sponges
~demosponges
~glasssponges
~Calcareous sponges
~Archaeocyathids
~Calcarea
2. Coelenterates/cnidarians: one opening in the body; have stinging cells
a. Jellyfishes
~moon jellyfish
~sea nettle
~Scyphozoan jellyfish
~Lion's mane jellyfish
~Chrysaora colorata
b. sea anemones
~corals
~Anthopleura sola
~Deep-sea anemone
~closed-sea anemone
~venus flytrap sea anemone
c. hydroids
3. Mollusks: soft bodies; most have hard shells
a. Gastropods: single shell or univalves
~limpets
~snails
~slugs
b. Bivalves: two-shelled
~clams
~oysters
~mussels
~scallops
c. Cephalopods: tentacled
~octupuses
~squids
~nautiluses
4. Echinoderms: outer skeleton usually with spines; have water pumping systems
a. Starfishes
b. Brittle stars
c. Sea lilies
d. Sea urchins
e. sand dollars
f. sea cucumbers
5. Platyhelminthes: flat body; one opening in digestive system
a. Flatworms
~planaria
~tapeworm
~flukes
6. Nemathelminthes/nematodes: smooth, round body; two openings in digestive system
a. Roundworms
~hookworm
~Trichina worm
~Trichinella
7. Annelids: body divided into bands; has circulatory and nervous system
a. Segmented worms
~earth worm
8. Arthropods: hard outer skeleton; at least three pairs of joint legs; body divided into segments
a. Insects:
~Flies
~butterflies
~ants
~mosquitoes
~dragonflies
b. Arachnids:
~Spiders
~ticks
~scorpions
~mites
c. Crustaceans:
~crabs
~shrimps
~lobsters
~crayfish
~water fleas
d. Milipedes
e. Centipedes
9. Vertebrates: Have inner skeleton
a. birds
~eagles
~falcons
~maya
~hawks
~ostrich
b. fish
~whale shark
~giant grouper
~clown fish
~angel fish
~sharks
c. mammals
~dogs
~squirrels
~bats
~kangaroos
~elephants
d. reptiles
~lizards
~turtles
~tortoises
~alligators
~crocodiles
e. amphibians
~toads
~snakes
~caecillian
~cobras
~boas

>>JJ<< said...

---KINGDOM ANIMALIA---

Animals (Kindom Animalia) are multicellular organisms that are capable of locomotion. Animals are
heterotrophs, which means they rely on other organisms to obtain their nourishment. Most animals (with the exception of sponges) have bodies that are differentiated into tissues which are in turn organized into organ systems.

Animals range in size from microscopic animals known as plankton to the massive blue whale. They inhabit virtually every habitat on the planet—from the poles to the tropics, mountain tops to ocean depths.

All animals have cells that lack rigid cell walls (like those found in plant cells). Most animals reproduce sexually and are diploid (adults have cells that include two copies of their genetic material). There are between 3 and 30 million species of animals, though this remains a rough estimate. The largest subgroup of animals by far is the insects.

Animals are thought to have evolved from flagellate protozoa and the oldest animal fossils date back 600 million years, to the latter part of the Precambrian. It was during the Cambrian period (about 570 million years ago), that most major groups of animals evolved.
Classification:

Kingdom: Animalia (Animals)
The Kingdom Animalia contains the following subgroups:

Phylum: Annelida (segmented worms)
Phylum: Arthropoda (crustaceans, insects, spiders, and relatives)
Phylum: Brachiopoda (lamp shells)
Phylum: Bryozoa (bryozoans, ectoprocts, and moss animals)
Phylum: Chaetognatha (arrow worms)
Phylum: Chordata (chordates)
Phylum: Cnidaria (cnidarians)
Phylum: Ctenophora (comb jellies)
Phylum: Cycliophora
Phylum: Echinodermata (echinoderms)
Phylum: Entoprocta (entoprocts)
Phylum: Gastrotricha (gastrotrichs)
Phylum: Gnathostomulida (gnathostomulids)
Phylum: Hemichordata (hemichordates)
Phylum: Kinorhyncha (kinorhynchs)
Phylum: Loricifera (loriciferans)
Phylum: Mollusca (mollusks)
Phylum: Myxozoa (ciliated protozoans)
Phylum: Nematoda (nematodes)
Phylum: Nematomorpha (gordian worms and horsehair worms)
Phylum: Nemertea (proboscis worms)
Phylum: Onychophora (velvet worms)
Phylum: Orthonectida (orthonectids)
Phylum: Phoronida (phoronids)
Phylum: Placozoa
Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
Phylum: Porifera (sponges)
Phylum: Priapula (priapulans)
Phylum: Rhombozoa (rhombozoans)
Phylum: Rotifera (rotifers)
Phylum: Sipuncula (sipunculan worms)
Phylum: Tardigrada (water bears)

---KINGDOM PLANTAE---

Body type: multicellular with cell walls made of cellulose

Prokaryotic / eukaryotic: eukaryotic

Food consumption: photosynthesis (absorbs light)

Reproduction: both sexual and asexual

Environments: land and water

Hetero / Chemo / Autotrophic: Autotrophic

Characteristics: Plants have organs and organ systems. The leaves collect and absorb sunlight to convert to glucose. The leaves have a waxy coat on them to shield against water. The root system, which branches out, provides support and absorbs water. The stem provides support and the petal / flower / bud is the reproductive organ of the plant.

Names of phyla:
-Filicophyta
-Sphenophyta
-Bryophyta
-Ginkophyta
-Coniferophyta
-Anthophyta

Division Bryophyta:

Composed of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts-- these are thought to be the first plants. Bryophyta do not have any true organs like stems, leaves or roots. They have tiny anchor-like rhizoids that keep them attached to the ground. They grow in shaded, moist places, like the rainforests.

Division Sphenophyta:
Consists of horsetails, which are basically stems. There aren't any noticeable leaves, and barely any roots.

Division Anthophyta:
Division anthophyta is the largest grouping of flowering plants.

Division Coniferophyta:
These are plants that bear their seeds in the form of a cone. They are both diploid and haploid.

Division Ginkgophyta:
Plants that are domestic to China and when reproducing, the females egg produces a very bad smell.

Division Filicophyta:
Ferns are just about the only type of plant that is in division filicophyta. Most ferns live near water, like in the rain forest or in ponds.

What distinguishes kingdom plantae from all the other kingdoms, is that the cells of kingdom plantae have cell walls made of cellulose that are used to support the plant. This cell wall is not a semi-permeable membrane and the cell cannot transport material and nutrients in and out of the cell walls. For this function there is the large central vacuole that stores water and chemicals for use inside of the cell. Another characteristic belonging only to kingdom plantae is their chloroplasts, the organelle that converts light energy into chemical energy inside the plant where the energy is stored as sugar. Their ability to convert inorganic matter (atmospheric CO2) to organic matter using photosynthesis keeps us humans in kingdom animalia alive.

---KINGDOM PROTISTA---

Members of the Kingdom Protista are the simplest of the eukaryotes. Protistans are an interesting assemblage of organisms classified for what they are not. Protistans lack characteristics shared by plants, fungi, and animals, but they're not bacteria. Essentially, this Kingdom is home for the "leftover" organisms that couldn't be classified elsewhere!

Protists can be unicellular, multicellular or colonial. Some move around and act like animals, others perform photosynthesis like plants, and still others seem to "think" they're fungi! You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they're both members of the protist kingdoms.

Body type: both unicellular and multicellular

Prokaryotic / eukaryotic: eukaryotic

Food consumption: by photosynthesis (algae)

Reproduction: both sexual and asexual

Auto / Chemo / Heterotrophic: auto and heterotrophic

Phylum Zoomastigophora:
- have flagella ( tiny hair like structures for movement )
-some colonial

PHYLUM FORAMINIFERA:
- marine ameobas
- shelled

PHYLUM CILIOPHORA:
- cilia
- are able to control their movement
- are found mainly in freshwater

PHYLUM APICOMPLEXA:
- all parasitic
- sexual and asexual reproduction

PHYLUM RHIZOPODA:
-Produce asexually
-Live in fresh water, marine, moist soils
-Many are parasitic

---KINGDOM FUNGI---

Though the appearance of many fungi may resemble plants, they are probably more closely related to animals. Fungi are not capable of performing photosynthesis, so must get their nourishment from other sources. Many fungi absorb nutrients directly from t he soil. Many others feed on dead and decaying organisms and therefore have an important role in the recycling of nutrients in natural systems. Still others feed on living organisms. Athlete's foot is a common fungus which feeds on a living host - you!

When you think of fungi, you probably think of the mushrooms we can buy at the supermarket or hunt for in the woods. However, those "mushrooms" are really just special structures called "fruiting bodies" produced by the fungus for reproduction. The rest of the fungus (and the biggest part) lives below the ground.

Fungi come in a wide variety of sizes and forms, and many have great economic importance. Tiny, one-celled yeasts are important for baking breads and fermenting wines, beers and vinegars. Many medicines are produced with the help of fungi, most notably, the antibiotic, Penicillin. If you leave your bread on the counter too long, you'll be able to observe a relative of the Penicillium mold for yourself!

Body type: unicellular or multicellular

Prokaryotic / eukaryotic: eukaryotic

Food consumption: throught absorbtion

Reproduction: both sexual and asexual

Environments: marine, terrestrial, fresh water

Number of species: about 100,000


Characteristics: Cell walls made of chitin (chit-in)

There are four phyla in kingdom fungi:
-Chytridiomycota (aquatic)
-Basidiomycota (mushrooms) about 25, 00 species
-Zygomycota (bread mold), about 1500 species
-Ascomycota (morrels, truffles), about 30,000 species

---KINGDOM MONERA---

The Kingdom Monera consists entirely of the bacteria - very small one-celled organisms. To get an idea of just how small bacteria are, take a look at the width of a millimeter - the smallest units on the metric side of a ruler. A thousand bacteria can sit side by side in just 1 tiny millimeter!

Despite their small size, bacteria are the most abundant of any organism on Earth. And they're everywhere! Bacteria can be found in the air, soil, water, on you, and inside you. In fact, there are more bacterial cells inside your gut and on your skin than there are cells in your entire body - no matter how many times you try to wash them off!

The cells of all bacteria (and therefore, the cells of all Monerans) are classified as "prokaryotic", the simplest and most ancient of the cell types. Prokaryotes lack many of the structures found in the more complex, eukaryotic cells.

Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning. However, most bacteria are completely harmless and many even perform beneficial functions, such as turning milk into yogurt or cheese and helping scientists produce drugs to fight disease. Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.

Body type: unicellular

Prokayotic / eukaryotic: prokaryotic

Environments: extreme environments as do archaebacteria (near volcanic activity)

HETEROTROPHS: This bacteria lives about anywhere, including in your body in the form of a parasite. Saprobes feed off of non -living organisms and recycles the nutrients back into the environment where it can be used to create new life.

AUTOTROPHS: Obtain energy through photosynthesis. Most are a blue-green color and are often called blue-green bacteria. They get this color from chlorophyll, which is also found in plants. They live in chains in ponds, lakes, and moist regions.

CHEMOTROPHS: Produce energy by converting inoganic matter into organic matter. They break down dead stuff.

examples.....

animalia - dogs,spiders,parrot,
lizard,chameleon

plantae - rose,pine tree,apple tree
ferns,venus flytrap

protista - amoeba,diatom,euglena,
paramecium,some algae

fungi - athlete's foot,molds,
mushroom,truffles,yeast

monera - Clostridium sporogenes,
Bacteroides vulgaris,
Myobacterium tuberculosis,
Bacillus,Nocardia


B12-OLMC

abeng! said...

=The Five Kingdoms of Living Things=

-->Kingdom Animalia<--
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. Animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms for sustenance.
Animals have several characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and usually multicellular which separates them from bacteria and most protists. They are heterotrophic generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae (some sponges are capable of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation though).They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.All animals are motile, if only at certain life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a blastula stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.

-->KIngdom Plantae<--
Kingdom Plantae contains nearly 300,000 different species of plants. Although this does not make it the largest kingdom, many might argue that it just may be the most important one.
In the process known as "photosynthesis ", plants use the energy of the Sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into food (sugars) and oxygen. This single chemical reaction provides virtually all the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and nearly all the food required by living things. Although some protists andIt is a complex chemical process by which plants and other autotrophs create the energy needed for biological life. bacteria are capable of performing photosynthesis, plants are responsible for most of the photosynthesis done on Earth.

-->Kingdom Monera<--
The Kingdom Monera consists entirely of the bacteria - very small one-celled organisms. To get an idea of just how small bacteria are, take a look at the width of a millimeter - the smallest units on the metric side of a ruler. A thousand bacteria can sit side by side in just 1 tiny millimeter!
Despite their small size, bacteria are the most abundant of any organism on Earth. And they're everywhere! Bacteria can be found in the air, soil, water, on you, and inside you. In fact, there are more bacterial cells inside your gut and on your skin than there are cells in your entire body - no matter how many times you try to wash them off!

The cells of all bacteria (and therefore, the cells of all Monerans) are classified as "prokaryotic", the simplest and most ancient of the cell types. Prokaryotes lack many of the structures found in the more complex, eukaryotic cells.

Bacteria often get a bad reputation because certain types are responsible for causing a variety of illnesses, including many types of food poisoning. However, most bacteria are completely harmless and many even perform beneficial functions, such as turning milk into yogurt or cheese and helping scientists produce drugs to fight disease. Bacteria were among the first life forms on Earth.

-->Kingdom Fungi<--
The organisms of the fungal lineage include mushrooms, rusts, smuts, puffballs, truffles, morels, molds, and yeasts, as well as many less well-known organisms (Alexopoulos et al., 1996). More than 70,000 species of fungi have been described; however, some estimates of total numbers suggest that 1.5 million species may exist.As the sister group of animals and part of the eukaryotic crown group that radiated about a billion years ago, the fungi constitute an independent group equal in rank to that of plants and animals. They share with animals the ability to export hydrolytic enzymes that break down biopolymers, which can be absorbed for nutrition. Rather than requiring a stomach to accomplish digestion, fungi live in their own food supply and simply grow into new food as the local environment becomes nutrient depleted.

Most biologists have seen dense filamentous fungal colonies growing on rich nutrient agar plates, but in nature the filaments can be much longer and the colonies less dense. When one of the filaments contacts a food supply, the entire colony mobilizes and reallocates resources to exploit the new food. Should all food become depleted, sporulation is triggered. Although the fungal filaments and spores are microscopic, the colony can be very large with individuals of some species rivaling the mass of the largest animals or plants.

-->Kingdom Protista<--
Members of the Kingdom Protista are the simplest of the eukaryotes. Protistans are an interesting assemblage of organisms classified for what they are not. Protistans lack characteristics shared by plants, fungi, and animals, but they're not bacteria. Essentially, this Kingdom is home for the "leftover" organisms that couldn't be classified elsewhere!
Protists can be unicellular, multicellular or colonial. Some move around and act like animals, others perform photosynthesis like plants, and still others seem to "think" they're fungi! You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they're both members of the protist kingdoms.


:))G24 ii-OLMC

ninna said...

Basically there are 5 kingdoms of life accepted in science today. These 5 are kingdoms of animalia, plantae, protista, fungi and moneran.


Animalia...
It is the major group of the living things. They are multi-cellular. This kingdom is called Metazoa. Animals are able to move. Animals are also heterotrophs. They serve as the consumer in the ecosystem.

examples:
water- fishes, sea horses, octopus, etc.
land- giraffes, cats, dogs, tigers
air- birds


Plantae...
They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. They served as the producers in the ecosystem.

examples:
vegetables, fruits, orchids, grasses, flowers


Fungi...
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms.The fungi are a monophyletic group.The fungi are heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall. Sexual and asexual reproduction of the fungi is commonly via spores. They served as decomposers in ecosystem.

examples:
mushroom, yeasts, molds


Protist...
The protists do not have much in common besides a relatively simple organization -- either they are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues. This simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi, animals and plants.

examples:
protozoa, flagella, slime molds, amoeba


Monera...
Monera are bacteria and other mostly tiny, single-celled organisms whose genetic material is loose in the cell. The genetic material of plants, animals, and other eukaryotes, on the other hand, is held in the cell's nucleus. While the Monera were briefly understood to be one of five biological kingdoms, it is now understood to comprise two kingdoms: the eubacteria and the archaebacteria. The Monera kingdom included most organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization. For this reason, the kingdom was sometimes called Prokaryota or Prokaryotae.

examples:
streptococcus, staphylococcus, bacteria, flagellum, blue-green algae

cheska :) said...

I. Kingdom Protista

A. Heterogeneous assemblage of unicellular, colonial and multicellular Eukaryotes that do not have the distinctive characters of plants, animals or fungi

B. Contains a number of organisms previously classified as plants, animals or fungi. E.g. protozoans, all the algae except blue-greens, and several organisms previously called fungi

C. Flagella - most often involved in locomotion

1. Whiplash - without appendages

2. Tinsel - has appendages (barbs)

3. Vary in number, size and/or position, e.g. anterior, posterior, lateral. Flagella may be present only in reproductive cells or not at all

D. Sexual reproduction:

1. Isogamy - motile gametes the same size

2. Anisogamy - motile gametes with the female larger than the male

3. Oogamy - large non-motile female, smaller motile male

II. Classification

A. Our text recognizes 12 divisions. See tables in your text for a summary of their major characteristics

B. Classification based on modes of nutrition, pigments (if present), carbohydrate food reserves, flagella, cell wall components and the environments they inhabit

III. Importance

A. Important components of food chains. E.g. kelp beds are among the most productive ecosystems on earth

B. Unicellular aquatic Protista (plankton) form a very important component of the food chain. The photosynthetic ones are called phytoplankton and the heterotrophic ones are called zooplankton (which also includes many animal larvae or tiny crustaceans)

PHYLA OF PROTISTA

I. Euglenophyta - euglenoids - Named for Euglena

A. Mostly freshwater
B. About 900 species

C. Virtually all are unicellular except for one colonial genus
D. About 1/3 of the genera contain chloroplasts with chlorophylls A & B and carotenoids as found in true plants

E. Appears they are derived from protozoa by incorporation of chloroplasts. If grown under proper conditions cells may replicate faster than the chloroplasts, giving rise to non-photosynthetic cells which are nearly indistinguishable from protozoa. The heterotrophs ingest food

F. Paramylon carbohydrate food reserve (a polysaccharide glucan with 1-3 linkage)

G. Instead of a cell wall they have a pellicle, a flexible layer of interlocking proteinaceous strips inside plasma membrane

H. Reproduction via simple cell division. Sexual reproduction is lacking

II. Myxomycota - Commonly called plasmodial slime molds.

A. About 700 species

B. Terrestrial
C. Heterotrophic

D. Glycogen carbohydrate food reserve

E. Diploid

F. Lack cell walls - exist as streaming masses of naked protoplasm which "creeps" over lawns, plants, rotting materials. They can cover an area of several meters

1. Plasmodium - masse of naked protoplasm. As they travel they engulf bacteria, yeast cells, fungal spores and decayed plant and animal matter. The plasmodium contains many nuclei which undergo synchronous divisions

G. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of amoebae and/or flagellated gametes which come from spores produced within sporangia

H. The life cycle of Physarum is on p. 353 of your text

III. Rhodophyta - commonly called red algae

A. About 4,000 - 6,000 species

B. Mostly marine but a few freshwater species, particularly abundant in tropical and warm regions.

C. Usually grow attached to rocks or other algae, but there are a few free floating forms and a few unicellular or colonial forms

D. No flagellated cells at all in life cycle

E. They lack centrioles and structures called polar rings play the role of centrioles

F. Autotrophic - contain only chlorophyll A, plus carotenoids, phycobilins

1. Their chloroplasts seem to have originated as symbiotic cyanobacteria, which they resemble both biochemically and structurally

G. Floridean starch carbohydrate food reserve

1. Floridean starch is more glycogen like (found in animals and fungi) than other plant starches

H. Cell walls of cellulose or other polysaccharides, plus gelatinous pectic materials, e.g. agar and carrageenan (sulfated polymers of galactose)

1. Agar is used to make gelatinous capsules for pills, cosmetic base, culture medium for microbiology, rapid setting jellies and desserts

2. Carrageenan is a stabilizer in emulsions such as paints, cosmetics, and dairy products

I. Some species deposit calcium carbonate in their cell walls, called coralline algae. They play an important role in building coral reefs. They, along with dinoflagellates provide the food for the coral

J. Growth forms include simple filamentous as well as more complex three-dimensional forms composed of densely interwoven filaments held together by the gelatinous matrix

IV. Oomycota - Commonly called water molds. Also includes downy mildews, potato blight and many important agricultural pests on a variety of crops

A. About 700 species

B. Unicellular to highly branched, coenocytic, filamentous forms

C. Heterotrophic

D. Cellulose cell walls

E. Glycogen carbohydrate food reserve

F. Both sexual and asexual reproduction

1. Sexual reproduction involves an oogonium which contains many eggs and an antheridium which contains many male nuclei. Syngamy results in formation of thick walled zygote called an oospore

2. Asexual reproduction is via zoospores

G. Saprolegnia is the common water mold, see your text for its life cycle

V. Bacillariophyta - diatoms

A. About 100,000 extant species and many thousands of extinct species

B. Major component of aquatic ecosystems. May account for 25% of the total primary production on earth
C. Mostly unicellular but a few colonials

D. Diploid

E. Most autotrophic, a few are heterotrophic

1. Autotrophs contain chlorophylls A & C and fucoxanthin, a golden-brown carotenoid. Some have lost their shells and they live symbiotically inside marine protozoa

F. Chrysolaminarin (a glucose-mannitol polymer) carbohydrate food reserve ( similar to the laminarin found in the brown algae)

G. Lack flagella

H. Cell walls, called frustules, are polymerized, opaline silica (glass like)

1. The two halves of the frustules fit together like a Petrie dish

I. Reproduction mainly asexual. The two halves of the frustules open and each side generates a new half. Sexual reproduction takes place via oogamy

J. Diatoms are abundant in the fossil record from at least 250 million years ago. Their silica shells have accumulated in large numbers to form large deposits of diatomaceous earth. Diatomaceous earth is used as filtering agents, insulating materials, abrasives (toothpaste, silver polish). One cubic cm contains 4.6 million diatom shells

K. See your text for a typical diatom life cycle

VI. Phaeophyta - commonly called brown algae and/or kelps

A. About 1,500 species

B. Includes most of the conspicuous seaweeds of temperate regions, particularly along shorelines and intertidal zones

1. Kelp beds are some of the most productive ecosystems on earth. They flourish to depths of 100 ft., and may extend out about 6 miles from the coast line. The free floating forms may form dense masses, e.g. Sargassum forms the Sargasso Sea in the Atlantic northeast of the Caribbean Islands. Sizes range from microscopic to giant kelps up to 200 ft. long.

C. Almost entirely marine, primarily of colder oceans

D. Some of the kelps have tissue differentiation into holdfast, stipe and blade. Some also have air bladders for flotation
E. Some have conducting tissue in the stipe for food transport from photosynthetic blades way down into dark areas below sunlight penetration. There is also lateral translocation from outer photosynthetic layers to inner layers. Mannitol and amino acids are primary material that is translocated

F. Contain chlorophyll A & C, carotenoids, and fucoxanthin (same as Bacillariophyta)

G. Carbohydrate food reserve is laminarin (glucose-mannitol polymer) which is similar to the chrysolaminarin [more polymerized form of laminarin] of the Bacillariophyta

H. Only reproductive cells have flagella

I. Cell walls are a matrix of cellulose and alginic acids (polysaccharides)

1. Algin is a mucilaginous intercellular material used as a stabilizer and emulsifier for foods and paints, and coating for paper

J. See your text for the life cycle of Fucus, a common tide pool alga of the California coast

VII. Chlorophyta - commonly called green algae

A. About 17,000 species

B. This is the group which gave rise to the true plants

C. Very diverse division with a wide variety of life forms and life histories

D. Most are multicellular, but there are a few unicellular forms. Many growth forms:

1. Unicellular motile - Chlamydomonas is typical flagellated, unicellular type. It has one large chloroplast and reproduces asexually via successive mitoses or sexually by fusion of two cells. Chlamydomonas life cycle
2. Unicellular non-motile - look much like Chlamydomonas but lack flagella

3. Non-motile colonial - free floating colonies, e.g. the water net, Hydrodictyon

4. Motile colonial - two to thousands of Chlamydomonas - like cells held together in a gelatinous matrix. E.g. Volvox is a spectacular spherical colonial form made up of up to 60,000 Chlamydomonas like cells. The flagella of each cell beat in synchrony to move the colony about. There appears to be some division of labor and therefore beginnings of multicellularity & differentiation

5. Filamentous - E.g. Ulothrix and Spirogyra

6. Siphonous - very large, coenocytic "cells" such as Acetabularia

7. Multicellular - E. g. Ulva, the sea lettuce. Some may be highly branched and differentiated. Fritschella is a terrestrial multicellular form which has underground rhizoids, a prostrate stem and erect branches. Chara is the most complex green alga. It has nodes and internodes, whorls of branches, and eggs contained in very complex structure

E. Mostly freshwater but some marine and terrestrial species found on soil, tree trunks, surface of snow, and as symbionts with fungi in Lichens

F. Have chlorophylls A & B and carotenoids, just like true plants

G. Starch carbohydrate food reserve and it is stored inside the plastids, just like true plants

H. Cell walls are composed of cellulose and some species also contain a matrix of hemicellulose and pectic materials, just like true plants

I. Classification: two types of green algae characterized by different types of cell division:

1. Phragmoplast line - Nuclear envelope disintegrates at the start of mitosis and the spindle persists after the chromosomes separate. A series of microtubles, the phragmoplast, forms perpendicular to the plane of cell division. The spindle remains until it is broken by either a cell plate or by furrowing. True plants have a phragmoplast and the nuclear envelope disappears. This line of the green algae gave rise to true plants

2. Phycoplast line - Nuclear envelope persists through mitosis and the non-persistent spindle collapses after the chromosomes separate. A new system of microtubles, the phycoplast, develops parallel to the plane of cell division. This ensures that the cleavage furrow passes between the two daughter nuclei




g16-olmc
later po ung 4 kingdom..

B10 - OLHR (mark anthony paraiso) said...

>>>ANIMALS kingdom animalia
`are the most complex organisms on Earth. Animals are multi-celled organisms, eat food for survival and have nervous systems. They are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish.

>>>PLANTS kingdom plantae
`contain chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis, a process in which plants convert energy from sunlight into food. Their cell walls are made sturdy by a material called cellulose. Plants are fixed in one place. They are divided into two groups: flower-and-fruit producing plants and those that don't produce flowers or fruits. They include garden flowers, agricultural crops, grasses, shrubs, ferns, mosses and conifers.

>>>FUNGI
`are usually motionless organisms that absorb nutrients for survival. They include mushrooms, molds and yeasts.

>>>PROTISTS kingdom protista
`are mostly single-celled organisms that have a nucleus. They usually live in water. Some protists move around, while others stay in one place. Examples of protists include some algae, paramecium and amoeba.

>>>MONERA
`are single-celled organisms that don't have a nucleus. Bacteria make up the entire kingdom. There are more forms of bacteria than any other organism on Earth. Some bacteria are beneficial to us, such as the ones found in yogurt. Others can cause us to get sick.

tune said...

B-10 III-St. James

Actinium


Actinium is a radioactive chemical element which is found in trace amounts in uranium ore. This element has a relatively short half life, and it is so radioactive that it has few industrial uses. The primary use for actinium is in scientific research. It is extremely dangerous in the hands of people who are not experienced in handling radioactive materials. When this element is isolated, it proves to be a silvery color, and it will glow blue in the dark due to its radioactivity. The element shares a number of chemical properties with lanthanum, and the radioactivity makes it naturally extremely toxic. Actinium also produces a number of isotopes which have some research applications as well. On the periodic table of elements, you can find actinium by looking for the symbol Ac, and the element’s atomic number is 89.

the discovery of actinium is typically given to Andre Debierne, a French chemist who isolated it from a uranium ore in 1899. Around the same time, radium and polonium were also isolated from uranium ore by Marie and Pierre Curie, showing the uranium held a few well guarded secrets. The name of the element is taken from the Greek aktin, Which means “ray,” a reference to its radioactivity.

The primary users of actinium are scientific researchers, who utilized it as source of neutrons in nuclear research. An isotope of actinium can also be used to bombard bismuth to produce some interesting reactions, and this isotope is also be produced synthetically, as proved in 2000, when Australian researchers used a linear accelerator to produce a synthetic version.

Like other radioactive elements, actinium is toxic, and should handled with care. Exposure to relatively small amounts can be very dangerous, and it should not be ingested. Researchers who work with the element typically use protective measures and monitor their radiation exposure to avoid levels which could cause radiation sickness or long term damage.